Nute Gunray

Si vous disposez d’ouvrages ou d’articles de référence ou si vous connaissez des sites web de qualité traitant du thème abordé ici

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, merci de compléter l’article en donnant les références utiles à sa vérifiabilité et en les liant à la section « Notes et références » (modifier l’article, comment ajouter mes sources ?).
Nute Gunray est un personnage de Star Wars qui apparaît dans les épisodes I, II et III.
Nute Gunray est un Neimoidien de la planète Cato Neimoidia.

Vice-roi de la Fédération du commerce, Nute Gunray passe une alliance avec le seigneur sith Dark Sidious afin, à ses yeux, d’accroître le monopole commercial de la fédération alors que Sidious agit pour d’autres motifs cachés.
À cette fin

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, Gunray rencontre l’opposition de la reine Padmé Amidala et fait alors procéder au blocus de la planète Naboo (début de La Menace fantôme) afin que la Reine signe un traité garantissant à la Fédération le contrôle de cette planète.
À la suite du refus de la Reine, Gunray fait procéder à l’invasion de Naboo par l’armée droïde. Aidée par deux chevaliers Jedi, la Reine réussit à s’enfuir et à rallier Coruscant, la capitale de la république galactique

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, pour plaider sa cause mais sans succès. Elle finit par demander le renversement du chancelier en place et ce sera le sénateur représentant Naboo, Palpatine, qui deviendra le nouveau chancelier.
Revenue sur Naboo, Amidala finit par défaire avec succès l’emprise de Gunray sur sa planète et le fait arrêter.
Les quatre procès devant la Cour suprême ne réussirent pas à destituer Nute Gunray qui reste le vice-roi de la fédération du commerce. Dix ans après l’échec du blocus de Naboo

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, il rejoint les séparatistes du Comte Dooku qui complotent contre la république mais refuse d’officialiser cette alliance tant que Padmé Amidala est encore en vie (L’Attaque des clones).
Homme d’affaires, Nute Gunray est peu préparé à la guerre des clones qu’il contribue à déclencher avec son armée de droïdes au service des séparatistes.
Trois ans plus tard, lui et les autres leaders séparatistes ne peuvent que se placer sous la protection de Dooku et du général Grievous (La Revanche des Sith) mais ces derniers sont tués par les Jedi.
Dark Sidious

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, réel instigateur de la guerre et maître de Dooku et Grievous, fait cacher Gunray et les chefs séparatistes sur la planète volcanique Mustafar où ils apprendront la fin de la guerre et attendront la venue du nouvel apprenti de Sidious, Dark Vador, pour négocier la paix.
En fait, Sidious se débarrasse de ses anciens complices devenus inutiles et dérangeants puisqu’il est arrivé à ses fins (être empereur). Vador élimine Gunray en lui tranchant le thorax et les autres leaders séparatistes à coups de sabre laser.
The Clone Wars

The Big Fat Quiz of the Year

The Big Fat Quiz of the Year is an annual British television programme broadcast in the last or first week of the year on Channel 4. Essentially, the show is a comedy panel game in the style of a pub quiz. Three teams, of two celebrities each, are asked questions relating to the events of the year just gone by, which they write answers to on an electronic board in front of them. At the end of each round, they then display their answers, scoring a point for each correct one.
The first edition was broadcast in December 2004. There has been another at the end of each year, as well as a special edition in November 2007 for Channel 4’s 25th anniversary celebrations and three themed special editions in September 2012, to celebrate Channel 4’s three decades. A second set of “decades” editions screened in September 2013 as well as a 10th anniversary special in January 2015 and a Big Fat Quiz of Everything in January 2016. Repeats can usually be found days later on Channel 4’s sister-channel E4 and/or 4seven. Stand-up comedian Jimmy Carr has been the host and quizmaster of each edition to date. Channel 4 has made full episodes of The Big Fat Quiz of the Year available to view on All 4.

For the first Big Fat Quiz, broadcast on 28 December 2004, the three teams of celebrities were:
Louis Walsh, Nadia Almada and Dame Kelly Holmes all made live appearances to read out the answers for the months of April, June, and August respectively. Recorded questions from Bono, Derren Brown and The Bear from Bo’ Selecta! were shown too along with films of Richard and Judy discussing events. The children of Mitchell Brook Primary School in Neasden acted out news stories that happened throughout the year, such as Ricky Gervais winning two Golden Globe Awards for The Office and the Momart fire.
In 2005, Big Fat Quiz of the Year was shown on Boxing Day. The teams were:
Guest questioners in the studio included Jordan & Peter Andre and David Tennant. There were also recorded questions by several celebrities including Richard and Judy, Charlotte Church, Cameron Diaz, Toni Collette, Derren Brown and Kevin Pietersen. The mystery guests were Walter Wolfgang and a woman genuinely named Sue Doku. This year’s quiz saw the debut of Jon Snow giving fake news stories based on song lyrics, with “I Predict A Riot” and “Crazy Chick”. The children of Mitchell Brook Primary School acted out the birth of David and Victoria Beckham’s third child and Jacques Chirac insulting British food on the eve of the G8 Summit.
In 2006 the show was broadcast on 27 December. The three teams were:
Guest questioners in the studio included Boy George, Myleene Klass & Matt Willis and Guy Goma (famous for incorrectly appearing as a guest on BBC News 24). Pre-recorded questions were asked by Lily Allen, Carol Vorderman, Courtney Love, Girls Aloud, and Sacha Baron Cohen (in his Borat guise). Channel 4 News reporter Jon Snow returned to give fake news reports about songs of the year, reporting on “Patience” and “America”. The children of Mitchell Brook Primary School acted out The Da Vinci Code plagiarism claim and parents rebelling against Jamie Oliver’s school dinners campaign. Ian McKellen gave dramatised readings from the year’s bestselling autobiographies.
Russell Brand and Noel Fielding spent much of the show giving deliberately wrong – and surreal – answers, leaving them trailing far behind the other two teams. This was until towards the end when Jimmy Carr bowed to the pressure of the studio audience, and gave them 22 points for answering one question correctly, which was the amount needed to bring them back into contention at the time and ensuring that they subsequently won the quiz. This led Walliams and Brydon, who came last as a result, to exaggerate their chagrin at the turn of events that had seen Brand and Fielding emerge on top.
During a discussion about the Bob Skeleton event at that year’s Winter Olympics, the suggestion arose that a character with that name could be the star of Brand and Fielding’s next show together. The pair subsequently became known as the Goth Detectives (opposed to their original name, which arose from a joke Jimmy Carr made about their supposed parentage), which was suggested for the show’s title. Though it began as a joke, the pair eventually performed a Goth Detectives themed show for the Teenage Cancer Trust event at the Royal Albert Hall on 28 March 2007.
A special edition of the show, celebrating Channel 4’s 25th anniversary, was broadcast on 2 November 2007. The three teams were:
This show aired on 2 November 2007. Carr and Dee emerged victorious at the climax, and so had to take part in a special challenge which replicated the finale of The Crystal Maze. The pair had to collect silver and gold pieces of paper being blown around in a glass dome.
Vic Reeves and Joanna Fisher, who was a member of 1980s Channel 4 programme Minipops both came into the studio to ask bonus questions. Jon Snow read out a fake news report on The Snowman. Quentin Tarantino, Anna Friel, Jonathan Ross, Ram John Holder, Derren Brown, Jo Frost, Jools Holland and others appeared on pre-recorded filmed questions. The children of Mitchell Brook Primary school acted out classic Channel 4 programmes The Word and TFI Friday.
The 2007 show aired on 30 December 2007. The teams were:
Guest questioners in the studio were Christopher Biggins, Cerys Matthews and John Smeaton, a baggage handler at Glasgow Airport who helped foil a terrorist attack. Pre-recorded questions were asked by Take That, Gordon Ramsay and Thom Yorke. Jon Snow returned with a faux news report on “Umbrella”. John Hurt read out extracts from the autobiographies of Peter Andre and 50 Cent. The children of Mitchell Brook Primary School returned to act out David Beckham’s move to LA Galaxy and when a judge criticised The Jeremy Kyle Show. Paul Croft, the man who had a tattoo of Dumbledore done on his back before J.K. Rowling announced Dumbledore was gay, was the mystery guest.
This was the first time that Rob Brydon had been on the winning team, despite having appeared on the panel every year since the first show in 2004. Also, it was the first time (and, as of the 2012 edition, the only time) that the previous year’s winning team – the Goth Detectives – had both returned to defend their title.
The Big Fat Quiz of the Year 2008 aired on 28 December on Channel 4 at 9:00pm. The teams were as follows:
Due to the furore caused by his and Russell Brand’s infamous phone call to actor Andrew Sachs, which resulted in his three-month suspension from the BBC at the end of the year, this was the first occasion that Jonathan Ross did not appear. He also declined his customary executive producer credit. Despite Big Fat Quiz not being a BBC programme, Ross himself had thought it inappropriate to do any broadcasting work during the corporation’s censure (the same reason that was given for his decision to temporarily concede hosting duties of the British Comedy Awards – broadcast on ITV – around the same time).
This was also the first year that Rob Brydon was absent, leaving host Jimmy Carr as the only regular fixture throughout the Big Fat Quiz of the Year’s entire run to date (although neither Brydon nor Ross had been panellists for the special Channel 4 anniversary edition).
Guest appearances included Katy Perry, the Fonejacker, Jodie Kidd

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, Mark Foster, Christine Ohuruogu, James Degale, Alan Carr, Sarah Silverman, John Hurt and Sir Alan Sugar. Jon Snow gave news reports on “That’s Not My Name” and “I Kissed A Girl”. The children from Mitchell Brook Primary School also returned acting out the divorce of Paul McCartney and Heather Mills and Jay-Z headlining that year’s Glastonbury Festival.
The 2009 show was recorded on 7 December and aired on 1 January 2010. The teams were:
Peter Andre appeared as a guest questioner and musical comedian Tim Minchin asked a question in song format about Google Street View. Newsreader Jon Snow again appeared with news reports on “Poker Face” and “Bonkers” and the children of Mitchell Brook Primary School also reprised their regular slot, acting out the Parliament expenses scandal and Kanye West invading the stage at the MTV Video Music Awards. Other guest questioners included Sir David Attenborough, cricketer Stuart Broad, actor David Tennant and rapper 50 Cent. Swansea cagefighters Daniel Lerwell and James Lilley, who successfully fended off a homophobic attack in a nightclub (they were dressed in drag for a stag night), were the mystery guests

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.
Ross and Brand made a number of references to the Sachsgate scandal of 2008 which occurred last time they appeared together. There was also a discussion about changing Brooker and Mitchell’s team name to The Curmudgeons after they refused to dance to the Lady Gaga song “Poker Face”.
Mitchell and Brooker were the eventual winners and were asked by Jimmy Carr after their victory if they wanted to do a dance. Despite pressure from the audience, they kept up their premise of not dancing.
The 2010 show was recorded on 13 December and aired on 3 January 2011. The teams were:
Guest questions were provided by Nicole Scherzinger, Jack Black, Simon Pegg, Russell Brand, Seth Rogen, the cast of Misfits and Will Ferrell. The children of Mitchell Brook Primary School made their annual appearance acting out news stories, which included The Stig scandal and the Icelandic volcano eruption, as did Jon Snow with his fake news report of Lady Gaga and Beyoncé’s “Telephone”. Lola, the cat put in a wheelie bin in August by Mary Bale appeared as a mystery guest. Louie Spence posed a question in the form of a dance routine representing the story of the trapped Chilean miners.
The 2011 show was recorded on 14 December and aired on 27 December 2011. The teams for this year were:
Guest questions were provided by Cee Lo Green, Michael Sheen, Tulisa, Lee Evans, Muppet drummer Animal, Rastamouse, Downton Abbey star Jim Carter, Lenny Kravitz, and Professor Brian Cox. The children of Mitchell Brook Primary School made their annual appearance acting out news stories, which included the arrival of a cat at 10 Downing Street and Cheryl Cole’s firing from The X Factor, as did Jon Snow with his fake news reports of popular songs (Rebecca Black’s “Friday” and Jessie J’s “Price Tag”). “Supergran” Ann Timson, who was seen in a February 2011 viral video fending off four burglars with just her handbag, appeared as a mystery guest. The Only Way Is Essex cast members Lydia Rose Bright, Lauren Goodger, and Kirk Norcross appeared to present a question about the show.
The 2012 edition aired on 30 December 2012. The teams, which did not take team names, were:
The in-studio final bonus questions were provided by Team GB and Paralympics GB athletes Nicola Adams, Natasha Baker, Sophie Christiansen, Hannah Cockroft, Helen Glover, Ed McKeever, Etienne Stott, and Peter Wilson. The Great British Bake Off finalists Brendan Lynch, James Morton, and John Whaite provided a live guest question. Recorded guest questions were provided by PSY, Gerard Butler, Usain Bolt, Jessica Ennis, Felix Baumgartner, Kylie Minogue, Cheryl Cole, Simon Callow, Jenson Button, Tom Daley, Warwick Davis, and Charles Dance (doing a dramatic reading from Fifty Shades of Grey). The children of Mitchell Brook Primary School once again made an appearance acting out the Diamond Jubilee Concert. Providing the song lyric as news story segment was Jon Snow, reporting on “Call Me Maybe”. The mystery guest was Gary Connery, the stunt-double for the Queen, who skydived out of a helicopter during the 2012 Olympics opening ceremony.
During the show, Whitehall and Corden had pizza delivered and ate it with red wine.
The 2013 edition was recorded on 10 December and aired on 26 December 2013. The teams, which did not take team names, were:
Danny Dyer appeared in the studio to provide a live guest question. Pre-recorded guest questions were provided by Russell Brand, Anchorman 2 stars Steve Carell, Will Ferrell, and Paul Rudd, Olly Murs, Christine Ohuruogu, Louis Walsh, Richard Osman, The Great Gonzo (promoting Muppets Most Wanted), Harry Hill, Sophie Ellis-Bextor. Educating Yorkshire teachers Mr Mitchell and Mr Burton, The Great British Bake Off series 4 runner-up Ruby Tandoh, Rizzle Kicks, and astronaut Chris Hadfield. The children of Mitchell Brook Primary School returned to act out Edward Snowden’s spy leaks. Jon Snow reported on “Wrecking Ball” and Charles Dance read from the autobiography of Lauren Goodger. The mystery guest was Natalie Holt, who threw eggs at Simon Cowell on the final of Britain’s Got Talent.
The show was dedicated to comedy agent and producer Addison Cresswell, who died on 22 December 2013.
Also, Jonathan Ross brought most of a turkey, a loaf of bread and champagne. He ended up making sandwiches for the others.
The 2014 edition was recorded on 1 December and aired on 26 December 2014. The teams were:
Pre-recorded guest questions came from Michael Palin, Tom Daley, the cast of The Inbetweeners, Game of Thrones actress Natalie Dormer, Lily Allen, Rio Ferdinand, Pixie Lott and Status Quo members Francis Rossi and Rick Parfitt. Paralympic gold medallists Kelly Gallagher and Charlotte Evans provided the in-studio guest question. Charles Dance read from the autobiography of Joey Essex. The children of Mitchell Brook Primary School acted out the Bernie Ecclestone trial. Jon Snow gave his news report about “All About That Bass”. The mystery guest was Dean Farley, the jogger who ran into David Cameron.
Mel B’s performance received notable negative attention on social media and in the press as having brought down the show by being perceived as sour and humourless.
The second Big Fat Anniversary Quiz was recorded on 29 September 2014 and aired on 2 January 2015, to mark the tenth anniversary of the series. The teams that took part were:
Pre-recorded guest questions came from Ian McKellen, Paul Hollywood and Mary Berry, Chico, Gregg Wallace, Ellie Simmonds, Peter Andre and Abbey Clancy. Louie Spence provided the in-studio guest question in the form of an interpretive dance about the 2013 horse meat scandal. Charles Dance read from the autobiography of Jay-Z. The children of Mitchell Brook Primary School acted out the launch of the Large Hadron Collider in 2008. Jon Snow gave his news report about “Sex On Fire”. The mystery guest was Jon Morter, who started the Facebook campaign to make Rage Against The Machine’s “Killing in the Name” the Christmas number 1 in 2009. A Dalek also appeared in the studio to ask the final bonus question, and to “exterminate” Carr at the end of the quiz. Brand and Fielding referenced their past name as the “Goth Detectives” several times. They got many of their correct answers from an ongoing text conversation with members of the live studio audience. The ruse was discovered when Carr took Brand’s phone, called one of the numbers, and an audience member answered.
The 2015 edition was recorded on 14 December 2015 and aired on 26 December 2015. The teams, which did not take names, were:
Pre-recorded guest questions came from Quentin Tarantino, Rita Ora, Simon Pegg, Will Ferrell and Mark Wahlberg, Josh Groban, Olly Murs, Katie Price and Heston Blumenthal. The Great British Bake Off winner, Nadiya Hussain, provided the in-studio guest question. The children of Mitchell Brook Primary School acted out Jeremy Clarkson’s dismissal from Top Gear. Jon Snow reported on Drake’s “Hotline Bling”. Charles Dance read from “List of the Lost”, the debut novel by Morrissey. The mystery guest was Cecilia Bleasdale, who took a photo of a black and blue dress which appeared white and gold on the photo, leading to the dress becoming an internet meme.
A special entitled The Big Fat Quiz of Everything was recorded in October 2015 and aired on 5 January 2016. The teams were:
Pre-recorded guest questions came from Little Mix, Gareth Malone, Paul Whitehouse, Joey Essex, Jessica Ennis-Hill, Dom and Steph Parker from Gogglebox, Kevin McCloud, Darcey Bussell and Alesha Dixon. Chris Kamara provided the in-studio guest question. The children of Mitchell Brook Primary School acted out The Great Fire of London. Jon Snow reported on Queen’s “Bohemian Rhapsody”.
In 2012, three Big Fat Quizzes were recorded as part of Channel 4’s 30th anniversary celebrations, each representing one of the past decades. The shows were recorded on 30 August, 12 September and 19 September.
The show was recorded on 12 September 2012 and aired on 16 September 2012. The teams, which did not take team names for this special, were:
In-studio guest questions were provided by Kriss Akabusi and Samantha Fox, who presented the final bonus question. Recorded guest questions were provided by Su Pollard, Michael Fish, Clare Grogan, Roland Rat, Nik Kershaw, The Proclaimers, Anne Charleston, Charles Dance (doing a dramatic reading from the autobiography of The Krankies), and Sonia. The children of Mitchell Brook Primary School made an appearance acting out Live Aid

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. Providing the song lyric as news story segment was original Newsround anchor John Craven, reporting on “Thriller”. Bunty Bailey, the actress who played the female love interest in a-ha’s “Take On Me”, appeared as a mystery guest. The four winners were “presented” a Sinclair C5 by Samantha Fox.
The show was recorded on 19 September 2012 and aired on 23 September 2012. The teams, which did not take team names for this special, were:
The in-studio final bonus questions were provided (after a fashion) by Mr Blobby. Recorded guest questions were provided by Zig and Zag

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, Chesney Hawkes, B*Witched members Lindsay Armaou and Keavy Lynch, Laurence Llewelyn-Bowen, Vic and Bob (Vic Reeves and Bob Mortimer), Linford Christie, and Charles Dance (doing a dramatic reading from the autobiography of Melanie Brown). The children of Mitchell Brook Primary School made an appearance acting out the launch and repair of the Hubble Space Telescope. Providing the song lyric as news story segment was former BBC Nine O’Clock News presenter Michael Buerk, reporting on “I’m Too Sexy”. John Simmit and Nikky Smedley, the portrayers of Teletubbies Dipsy and Laa-Laa (respectively), appeared as mystery guests.
The show was recorded on 30 August 2012 and aired on 30 September 2012. The teams were:
The in-studio final bonus questions were provided by the Cheeky Girls. Dragons’ Den dragon Duncan Bannatyne provided a live guest question. Recorded guest questions were provided by Gregg Wallace, Nick Bateman, Peter Andre, half of McFly, Gareth Gates, Tara Palmer-Tomkinson, and Charles Dance (doing a dramatic reading from the autobiography of Katie Price). The children of Mitchell Brook Primary School made an appearance acting out the cheating scandal on Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?. Providing the song lyric as news story segment was Channel 4 News presenter and Big Fat Quiz regular Jon Snow, reporting on “It Wasn’t Me”. Howard Davies-Carr and his two sons Harry and Charlie, stars of the popular viral video Charlie Bit My Finger appeared as mystery guests. Big Brother voiceover announcer Marcus Bentley read the final scores.
Due to the success of the Decades specials in 2012, Channel 4 commissioned two additional Decades specials to air in the autumn of 2013.
The show aired on 22 September 2013. The teams, which did not take team names for this special, were:
Anneka Rice provided a live guest question. The mystery guest was Stelios Havatzios, the ’80s Athena Baby in the L’Enfant poster. Recorded guest questions were provided by Toyah Willcox, Kim Wilde, Jim Bowen, Bob Carolgees, Carol Decker, Trevor and Simon (Going Live!), Tony Robinson, Gordon Burns and Charles Dance (doing a dramatic reading from the autobiography of Chas & Dave’s Chas). The children of Goldsmith Community Hall made an appearance acting out Operation Deepscan. Providing the song lyric as news story segment was John Craven, reporting on “Total Eclipse Of The Heart”.
The show aired on 29 September 2013. The teams, which did not take team names for this special, were:
Diane Youdale (the one-time Gladiator Jet) provided a live guest question. The mystery guest was Todd Watkins, who gained fame for kissing a 77-year-old woman on a The Word segment called “The Hopefuls”. Recorded guest questions were provided by Mr. Motivator, Goldie, Andi Peters, Tony Mortimer, Melinda Messenger, Daniela Nardini, Sally Gunnell

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, The Shamen’s Mr. C, the members of Hanson and Charles Dance (doing a dramatic reading from the autobiography of Vanilla Ice). The children of Goldsmith Community Hall made an appearance acting out the cloning of Dolly the sheep played by Hannah MacDonald. Providing the song lyric as news story segment was Martyn Lewis, reporting on “Livin’ la Vida Loca”. In the penultimate round, Carr announced that he had hired the gunge tank from Noel’s House Party and the losers would be gunged, however Ross convinced Carr himself to go in it and was gunged by Jet.

Unassisted childbirth

Unassisted childbirth (UC) refers to the process of intentionally giving birth without the assistance of a medical or professional birth attendant. It may also known as freebirth, DIY (do-it-yourself) birth, unhindered birth, and unassisted home birth. Although the term implies birth without any assistance at all, sometimes these terms are used to describe planned births outside the medical system with non-medical support people such as doulas or other non-medical birth attendants.
Unassisted childbirth is by definition a planned process

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, and is thus distinct from unassisted birth due to reasons of emergency, lack of access to a skilled birth attendant, or other. It is also different from homebirth: while most UCs do happen within the home, planned homebirth usually includes the presence of a midwife or other birth attendant.

The UC movement grew out of, and is an extension of the natural childbirth movement, pioneers of which include Grantly Dick-Read, Robert A. Bradley, and Fernand Lamaze. Influential proponents of UC include Marilyn A. Moran, Jeannine Parvati Baker, and Laura K. Shanley.
Moran, who wrote several books advocating UC, was motivated primarily by a strong belief that childbirth is a private, deeply sexual experience that should be shared only between intimates. This belief led her in 1972, after nine conventional births, to give birth to her tenth and final child with only her husband in attendance at their home.
Parvati Baker, a yogini, writer, poet, herbalist, and “spiritual midwife”, coined the term freebirth to describe UC. Following the birth of her first three children, and at the prompting of Moran, she began to both practice and advocate UC, speaking at conferences, giving interviews in various media, and writing extensively on the subject. Her subsequent three children were delivered with only her partner in attendance.
Shanley, a writer, poet, and self-styled birth consultant, is the author of the book Unassisted Childbirth (1993), which helped popularize the practice. Inspired by the writings of Dick-Read, Shanley, who has no formal training in gynecology or obstetrics, gave birth to all five of her own children unassisted and with no prenatal care. Four of them survived; Shanley’s fourth child, born four weeks premature in her bathroom, died a few hours later of a heart defect, pneumonia, and sepsis.
In response to the recent growth in interest over unassisted childbirth, several national medical societies, including the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, have issued strongly worded public statements warning against the practice. Professional midwives’ associations, including the Royal College of Midwives and the American College of Nurse-Midwives also caution against UC.
Reasons and motivations for choosing to give birth unassisted range greatly from mother to mother; those most frequently cited in unassisted childbirth literature and advocacy sites include[citation needed] the belief that birth is a normal function of the female body and therefore not a medical emergency. Other beliefs are that most interventions commonly used by the medical profession during birth cause more harm than good in a normal birth, that the mother will be more apt to follow the natural flow of her individual birth in an undisturbed birth setting, thus enabling her to find the optimum positions or techniques to birth her child safely and the view that birth is an intimate, sexual, and potentially orgasmic experience, and the belief that privacy is essential for enabling this erotic dimension.
Advocates believe that unassisted birth gives rise to a significant increase in maternal feelings and the mother’s ability to bond with and take responsibility for the welfare of her child. Some followers are unable to find a birth practitioner willing to attend their desired home birth. In many areas of the United States, there are no midwives or physicians available to assist at home births. Likewise, the woman may find her specific case presents difficulty in finding a willing practitioner, as is usually the case with a vaginal birth after caesarean section.
Unassisted with friends and/or family: While unassisted childbirth does not include the use of medical personnel or birth attendants in a professional capacity, the birthing woman may still wish to have other people present at her birth. This might include her partner, close friends of the mother, the grandparents-to-be, or other family members. These people may take on various roles such as minding the other children in the family, preparing food, making sure the mother remains undisturbed by phone calls, etc.[citation needed]
Couple’s Birth: A woman giving birth and her partner may wish to be alone together for the birth of their child. Some couples who choose unassisted childbirth consider the birth to be a consummation or extension of their married life. In terms of wanting to have an ecstatic or orgasmic birth, a high degree of privacy is desired. Others may simply consider birth to be an intimate bonding time between the spouses and their newborn child.[citation needed]
Solo Birth: Some women choose to give birth completely alone. They may retreat to a room alone at the time of the birth and then bring their partner in afterward; or they may remain entirely alone in their home or another location. Women who choose a solo unassisted birth may see birthing as an intensely private process, or may feel they have all the resources they need through their intuition.[citation needed]
Freebirth – a general term used to describe birthing without medical professionals. Sometimes used synonymously with “unassisted birth” kelme indoor soccer shoes, and sometimes used to describe any birth without medically licensed professionals present, regardless of who else may or not be in attendance in a supportive role.
With respect to medical prenatal care, two broad categories are recognized by unassisted childbirth proponents:
Assisted: Many women who are planning an unassisted birth choose to have professional prenatal care as part of their birth preparation. This may include regular prenatal visits with a doctor or monitoring by a midwife. Seeking the assistance of a doctor or midwife may allow for discovering risk factors that might make an unassisted birth inadvisable, such as placenta praevia. Professional prenatal care may also help identify risk factors that could be managed so that the unassisted birth can continue as planned. Rather than keep to a traditional prenatal care schedule, some women may also selectively choose prenatal care.
Unassisted: Some women who choose UC also choose to have a medically unassisted pregnancy; i.e. they do not visit a doctor or other birth professional for prenatal care. There are potentially life-threatening consequences of having no medical follow-up in case there are complications.
United States: The National Center for Health Statistics reports that of the 4.1 million babies born in the United States in 2004, more than 7,000 were born at home without a midwife or physician attending. It is unknown what portion of these births, roughly equivalent to a sixth of 1% of the nation’s annual total, occurred by choice.
Australia: It is not currently known how many women in Australia give birth at home by choice without medical assistance

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. Home births in Australia represent just 0.25 percent of all births, with the majority of these done with the assistance of a midwife.
Unassisted childbirth has been linked to substantially elevated rates of both maternal and neonatal mortality. One of the few, and perhaps the only, formal investigation of the mortality rates associated with the practice was conducted by the Indiana State Board of Health in 1984, among members of a religious community in Indiana. The investigation found a perinatal mortality rate 2.7 times higher, and a maternal mortality rate 97 times higher than the state average. In this community, pregnant women receive no prenatal medical care and deliver at home without medical assistance. This community avoids not only prenatal medical care but all medical care.
According to the president of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Thomas Purdon, twenty percent of all previously normal pregnancies turn into complications and high-risk situations during the course of labor that could result in serious adverse outcome to mother and baby, including death.
Controversy over the practice of UC has largely centered over whether it is, as claimed by proponents, a safe method of childbirth. Critics of UC, such as the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC), claim that unassisted childbirth is quite unsafe, and that those who engage in it are “courting danger”. A spokesperson for the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists issued a one-word assessment of freebirth: “dangerous”. The SOGC notes that more than 500,000 women worldwide die annually from complications during childbirth, and that even in developed countries, in which expectant mothers generally receive complete prenatal care, as many as 15% of all births involve potentially fatal complications. In poor countries in which there are conditions of malnutrition and taboos surrounding childbirth or there is a lack of qualified birth attendants, rates of maternal and infant mortality and complications such as fistula are much higher, with disparities in death rates from childbirth between developed and developing countries approaching two orders of magnitude. Critics also point out the high rates of complication and death arising from childbirth that existed before the development of modern medicine: between 10 and 15 deaths per 1000 births.
UC proponents have responded to these criticisms by emphasizing that childbirth is not a disease, but rather a natural, physiological process requiring proper nutrition, hygiene, prenatal self-care, and psychological preparation. They claim that both throughout history and in the impoverished regions of today’s world it has not been the lack of medical assistance, but rather conditions of poverty and nutritional ignorance which cause maternal mortality to be a major health issue.[citation needed] Rickets, for example, is prevalent in daughters of malnourished women, resulting in deformation of the pelvis and an increased chance of hemorrhage in scenarios of anemia. Proponents assert that the women who plan unassisted childbirth today (many of whom are giving birth to their second or third child, with a ‘proven’ pelvis), do so with a wealth of information and self-care, and are better prepared than most women who depend on care providers to deliver their child.
Some proponents have also claimed that modern maternal mortality rates in American hospitals are often obscured by being statistically tracked under ‘anesthesiology’.[citation needed] However

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, evidence suggests that if this is in fact the case, the practice is unlikely to account for more than a small fraction of maternal deaths: one study of maternal mortality records lists the total share of maternal mortality deaths recorded as stemming from anesthesia-related complications as just 5.2%. A study of anesthesia-related maternal mortality in the United States between 1979 and 2002 found the share of maternal mortality deaths caused by anesthesia to be just 1.6%, and that the share had dropped 59% between the time periods examined.
Other aspects of this response have also been called into question by scientific research. First, an analysis of historical data from Europe and the United States concluded that in developed countries, the main determinant of maternal mortality before 1937, and its decline since the 1930s, was not levels of poverty and associated malnutrition, but rather the overall standard of maternal care provided by birth attendants.
Second, with respect to UC proponents’ claim that unassisted childbirth is a natural process, researchers in the field of paleoanthropology have asserted that assisted childbirth is, in fact, a central evolutionary aspect of humanity, and may date back as far as five million years to when humanity’s ancestors first began walking upright.
On 27 March 2009, Janet Fraser, a leading advocate of UC and national convener of the highly popular Joyous Birth website, lost her child during a birth assisted only by her partner and a female friend. In an interview five days earlier with The Sunday Age, Fraser, in the early stages of labor at the time, stated that she had at no point during her pregnancy consulted with a health professional, and that she intended to deliver the baby at her home without an attending midwife. The cause of death was reported to be cardiac arrest. A coronial inquest concluded in 2012 that Roisin Fraser’s death was the result of a complication resulting from cord entanglement, was almost certainly preventable if the birth had proceeded in a maternity unit, and was probably preventable if the birth at home had been attended by a registered midwife. It also found that Fraser’s claim of “birthrape” during her first birth followed a planned homebirth attended by a midwife, where Fraser herself requested transfer to a hospital for epidural anaesthesia, and then subsequently requested a caesarean birth without medical indications and against medical advice.

Sà da Bandeira

Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo plus connu sous le titre de Sà da Bandeira (Santarém, 26 septembre 1795 — Lisbonne, 6 janvier 1876) est un homme politique portugais de l’époque de la monarchie constitutionnelle et un des principaux leaders du mouvement septembriste au Portugal. Il est aussi un des leaders du Parti Historique avant de l’abandonner pour former son propre mouvement, le Parti réformiste.
Il fut chargé de plusieurs portefeuilles ministériels et par cinq fois devint premier ministre de son pays (1836-1837, 1837-1839, 1865 et 1868-1869).
Il fut le premier baron de Sá da Bandeira (1833), avant de devenir le premier vicomte de Sá da Bandeira (1834) et enfin le premier marquis de Sá da Bandeira (1854).
Partisan du libéralisme, il fit partie des assiégés durant le siège de Porto en compagnie de nombreuses autres personnalité de cette époque. C’est d’ailleurs pendant la Guerre civile portugaise qu’il perd son bras droit à Vila Nova de Gaia.
Après la prise de pouvoir par les septembristes, à la suite de la révolution de septembre de 1836, il devient ministre de l’Intérieur du nouveau gouvernement. Peu après, une tentative contre-révolutionnaire des partisans de la Charte de 1826 (connue sous le nom de Belenzada) provoque des effets contraires à ceux espérés, contraignant la reine Marie II à nommer Sá da Bandeira comme Premier Ministre.
En compagnie de Manuel da Silva Passos (qui occupe alors le poste des Finances et de l’Intérieur dans son premier gouvernement), il inaugure un programme de réformes audacieuses pour le pays : c’est lui qui abolit l’esclavage dans les colonies portugaises (déjà aboli en métropole). Une nouvelle insurrection, la Révolte des Maréchaux, a lieu l’année suivante, menée par le maréchal Saldanha et le duc de Terceira; mais Sá da Bandeira réussit à la contenir.
En 1842, le coup d’État de Costa Cabral met fin à l’expérience septembriste. En 1846, c’est une révolte populaire cette fois (la révolte de Maria da Fonte) qui met fin au gouvernement Costa Cabral.
La reine désigne un nouveau gouvernement présidé par le Duc de Palmela, chartiste modéré, auquel participe aussi Sá da Bandeira, en tant que ministre de la Guerre. C’est alors qu’un nouveau coup d’État mené par Saldanha éclate ; il demande à être dégagé de ses responsabilités.
Cette décision est en partie à l’origine d’une nouvelle guerre civile, la Patuleia, qui se termine en 1847 par la victoire des chartistes soutenus par la reine et par l’étranger (Espagne et Royaume-Uni). Le pays est alors dirigé par les conservateurs durant plus de douze ans jusqu’à l’accession au trône de Pierre V de Portugal aux idées résolument progressistes.
Cette période politique se caractérise par le système du Rotativisme qui va inspirer la Monarchie constitutionnelle jusqu’au bout : une période de stabilité durant laquelle les deux partis majoritaires alternent au pouvoir. D’un côté le Parti Régénérateur formé par les anciens chartistes, à tendance conservatrice, de l’autre

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, le Parti Historique

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, issu du mouvement septembriste, à tendance libérale. Dans les faits, la monarchie constitutionnelle au Portugal, s’est révélée essentiellement oligarchique; rien d’étonnant à ce que les Régénérateurs comme les Historiques aient cherché leur soutien auprès des classes moyennes et hautes.
Sá da Bandeira assume à cette époque un rôle-clé dans la direction du Parti Historique; il devient la deuxième personnalité la plus importante avec le Duc de Loulé ; Ce dernier deviendra d’ailleurs chef du gouvernement en 1856 et en 1859.
Pendant le Rotativisme, ce système auto-régulé, caractérisé par les fréquentes dissolutions de l’assemblée

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, par la forte abstention (le droit de vote est d’ailleurs le privilège d’une petite minorité) sans oublier les manipulations électorales, grâce auquel les deux grands partis alternent au pouvoir, Sá da Bandeira accéda à la tête du gouvernement en 1865, pour cinq mois seulement. Ce système fut remplacé par la formation d’une vaste coalition regroupant Régénérateurs et Historiques, le Gouvernement de Fusion de Joaquim António de Aguiar.
Sá da Bandeira, s’étant toujours manifesté contre cette hypothèse, finit par s’éloigner du parti. Il forme avec ses compagnons un nouveau parti, le Parti réformiste. À la tête de ce parti, il redevient premier ministre durant un bref mandat entre 1868 e 1869

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En 1870, à la suite du Coup d’État de l’Ajudada, qui amène Saldanha au pouvoir, Sá da Bandeira organise la résistance à ce gouvernement dictatorial ; sa chute intervient trois mois après. Sá da Bandeira est alors invité pour la cinquième et dernière fois à former un gouvernement. Il organise par la suite des élections et offre le pouvoir à António José de Ávila (indépendant proche des Historiques).
Sá da Bandeira meurt en 1876. Le Parti réformiste qu’il a créé, lui survit peu de temps. Il se fond avec le Parti Historique pour former le Parti Progressiste.
C’est en hommage à cette figure historique que la ville de Lubango, en Angola, s’est appelée à l’époque coloniale Sá da Bandeira.

2011 Philadelphia Phillies season

The Philadelphia Phillies 2011 season was the 129th season in the history of the franchise. The Phillies won their fifth consecutive National League East championship, and also finished with the best record in baseball for the second straight year. The Phillies, at 3-1 odds, were the heavy-favorite to win the World Series. However, they were eliminated in the first round of the playoffs in five games to the eventual World Series champion St. Louis Cardinals.

The offseason for the Phillies began on October 23, 2010 when they lost the National League Championship Series to the San Francisco Giants. Although all coaches were invited to return for the 2011 season, first base coach Davey Lopes informed the team that he would be leaving because of a salary dispute. To replace him, third-base coach Sam Perlozzo was moved to first base, and former Phillies second baseman and Orioles’ third-base coach and interim manager Juan Samuel was hired to take over at third base.
On November 16, the Phillies signed reliever José Contreras to a two-year contract after he posted a 3.34 ERA in 2010. On December 6, right fielder Jayson Werth signed a seven-year contract with the Washington Nationals. On December 15, the Phillies re-signed Cliff Lee, the starting pitcher whom they had traded to the Seattle Mariners during the previous offseason in order to acquire Roy Halladay.
The Phillies stormed out of the gate, sweeping the Houston Astros on opening weekend

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. Three out of the four aces won their first starts (Hamels lost against the Mets). José Contreras was said to be the new Phillies closer; however, he got injured in late April, and was replaced by Ryan Madson. Madson continued the year in the closer position. The Phillies finished April with an 18–8 record, the second best in the majors, trailing only the Cleveland Indians, a team whom they traded with throughout the month for the best record in the majors.
On May 9, the Phillies took sole possession of the best record in the majors, a position that they would hold for the rest of the regular season. May was their second-worst month record-wise (following September)—they did not have many winning or losing streaks. However, the Phillies’ game against rival New York Mets on May 1 was an unforgettable one, although they lost 2–1 in 14 innings. The Mets’ Daniel Murphy was batting as a pinch-hitter against Phillies’ reliever Ryan Madson when the fans started chanting “U-S-A!” Later, it was determined that the chants were in response to the news that al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, the mastermind of the September 11 attacks, had been killed by United States special operations forces in Abbottabad, Pakistan. Mike Lopresti of USA Today said that the Phillies’ rivals “was a perfect fit” when the news broke. The Phillies finished May with a 34-22 record.
June was a very good month for the Phillies. In the middle of the month, they went on a seven-game winning streak, taking three of four from the Chicago Cubs, and a four-game sweep of the Florida Marlins. They came back to earth, trading several wins and losses over the next week. June concluded with the marquee match-up against the Boston Red Sox, a series many predicted to be a World Series preview (as it turned out, neither team made the Fall Classic). The Phillies dominated, taking two of three, highlighted by Cliff Lee’s shutout performance in the first game of the series. Lee went 5–0 with a 0.21 ERA in June, which earned him NL Pitcher of the Month. In June, Lee had more RBIs than earned runs (2 RBIs and only 1 earned run). The Phillies finished June with a 52–31 record.
By the beginning of July, the Phillies were certainly living up to their preseason hype, and were looking to be a definite contender for the World Series. July was the best month for the Phillies; they compiled a 17-8 record, and were beginning to run away with the NL East. On July 11, the Phillies overtook the top spot on ESPN’s Power Rankings, a spot they would hold for the remaining 12 weeks of the season. The Phillies sent five players (Roy Halladay, Cliff Lee, Cole Hamels, Plácido Polanco, and Shane Victorino) to the All Star Game. The Phillies finished July with a 69–39 record.
The Phillies began August riding a nine-game winning streak, and in time, extended their lead in the NL East to 8.5 games. After several months of being injured, Roy Oswalt came back into action in the Phillies, winning his first two starts by a combined score of 16-3. Because of Hurricane Irene, the Phillies had to play 33 games in 31 days, from August 29 to September 28. Along the way, they played three doubleheaders, the last of which came as a result of a rain-out in September. On August 31, the Phillies reached 40 games over .500—for the first time since their back-to-back 100+ win seasons in 1976 and 1977, in which they went 101–61—with a 3–0 win in Cincinnati against the Reds and improved to 86–46. Wins during the next two days got them to 42 games over .500 for the first time in franchise history.
On September 14, the Phillies became the first team to clinch a playoff spot with a 1–0 win in Houston, against Hunter Pence’s former team, after acquiring him at the trade deadline. Three days later, they clinched the NL East title for the fifth consecutive season. With 102 wins, the Phillies had the best record in baseball for the second year in a row and broke the franchise record for most regular-season wins. Towards the end of the season, the Phillies had an eight-game losing streak, but even with this streak, they had already clinched the NL East, as well as the best record in the majors. The Phillies ended the season by sweeping the Braves, capped off by a 14-inning win in the last game of the season. By winning the final game of the regular season, Phillies Manager Charlie Manuel also became the manager with the most wins in Phillies history. The win by the Phillies also eliminated the Braves from postseason contention, and allowed the St. Louis Cardinals to play in the postseason

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The Phillies also led the major leagues in attendance for the first time, with 3,680,718 fans (a franchise record), an average of 45,440 per game.

All players who made an appearance for the Phillies during 2011 are included.
Infielders
Coaches
The Phillies finished out the season with a sweep of the Atlanta Braves, and in doing so, allowed the St. Louis Cardinals to clinch the National League wild-card on the last day of the regular season. Having finished with the best record for the second year in a row, the Phillies had home-field advantage for the series. Game 1 saw the Cardinals jump out to an early lead, with a three-run homer by Lance Berkman in the top of the 1st, off Phillies ace Roy Halladay. The Phillies bats woke up in the 6th inning, with home runs by Ryan Howard and Raúl Ibañez

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. In addition to the offense waking up, Halladay tamed the Cardinals, retiring 21 straight batters, and the Phillies took game 1, 11-6. Game 2 featured another Philadelphia ace, Cliff Lee, facing the Cardinals’ Chris Carpenter, who would make his first start on three days rest of his career. The Phillies jumped out to a 4-run lead, however, Cliff Lee surrendered 5 runs, as the Cardinals came back, and took game 2, 5-4. The series then went to Busch Stadium in St. Louis for games 3 and 4. Game 3 featured Cole Hamels taking on Jaime García, both of whom pitched a scoreless game through 6 innings. In the 7th inning, the Phillies’ pinch-hitter Ben Francisco fired a three-run homer to give the Phillies the lead. The Cardinals were able to fight back and get 2 runs, but Ryan Madson shut the door, with a 5-out save, to give the Phillies a 2-1 series lead. In Game 4, a matchup between Roy Oswalt and Edwin Jackson, the Phillies again jumped out to an early 2-run lead. The Cardinals cut the lead in half in the bottom of the first. David Freese was the hero of game 4, with a two-run double in the fourth, which gave the Cardinals the lead, and a two-run homer in the sixth. The Phillies were not able to come back, and that sent the series back to Philadelphia tied at two games. Game 5 featured a marquee pitching matchup, with former Toronto teammates, Roy Halladay and Chris Carpenter facing off. Again, the Cardinals took an early lead, with Rafael Furcal scoring off a Skip Schumaker double. It turned out that was all the Cardinals needed, as they went on to win, 1–0. For the Cardinals, it added to their thus-far improbable season, and advanced to the NLCS for the first time since winning the 2006 World Series.
St. Louis Cardinals won the series, 3–2.
Vance Worley was named by Baseball America as one of the five starting pitchers on its All-Rookie Team.
Roy Halladay was named the Sportsperson of the Year by the Philadelphia Daily News for the second consecutive year.
The Philadelphia chapter of the Baseball Writers’ Association of America (BBWAA) presented its annual franchise awards to Shane Victorino (“Mike Schmidt Most Valuable Player Award”), Cliff Lee (“Steve Carlton Most Valuable Pitcher Award”), Charlie Manuel (“Dallas Green Special Achievement Award”), and Raúl Ibañez (“Tug McGraw Good Guy Award”).
Jimmy Rollins (shortstop) and Roy Halladay (one of three starting pitchers) were named to the MLB Insiders Club Magazine All-Postseason Team.
Shane Victorino received the Branch Rickey Award for his exceptional community service.
Retired general manager Pat Gillick was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame.

The Mind of God

The Mind of God is a 1992 non-fiction book by Paul Davies. Subtitled The Scientific Basis for a Rational World, it is a whirlwind tour and explanation of theories, both physical and metaphysical

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, regarding ultimate causes. Its title comes from a quotation from Stephen Hawking: “If we do discover a theory of everything

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…it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason—for then we would truly know the mind of God.”
In the preface, Davies explains that he has been interested in ultimate causes since childhood, having annoyed his parents with unending “why’s” about everything, with each answer demanding another “why,” and usually ending with the reply, “Because God made it that way

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, and that’s that!” In the book proper, Davies briefly explores: the nature of reason, belief, and metaphysics; theories of the origin of the universe; the laws of nature; the relationship of mathematics to physics; a few arguments for the existence of God; the possibility that the universe shows evidence of intelligent design; and his opinion of the implications of Gödel’s incompleteness theorem, that “the search for a closed logical scheme that provides a complete and self-consistent explanation is doomed to failure.”
He concludes with a statement of his belief that, even though we may never attain a theory of everything

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, “the existence of mind in some organism on some planet in the universe is surely a fact of fundamental significance. Through conscious beings the universe has generated self-awareness. This can be no trivial detail, no minor byproduct of mindless, purposeless forces. We are truly meant to be here.”

Diego Ordaz

Diego Alejandro Ordaz Álvarez (ur. 7 maja 1984 w Guadalajarze) – meksykański piłkarz występujący na pozycji prawego obrońcy kurtki bogner, obecnie zawodnik Chiapas.
Ordaz jest wychowankiem klubu CF Monterrey, do którego seniorskiej drużyny został włączony jako osiemnastolatek przez argentyńskiego szkoleniowca Daniela Passarellę. W meksykańskiej Primera División zadebiutował 16 marca 2003 w zremisowanym 1:1 spotkaniu z Américą i już w swoim debiutanckim, wiosennym sezonie Clausura 2003 zdobył ze swoją drużyną tytuł mistrza Meksyku. W tym samym roku zajął również z Monterrey drugie miejsce w krajowym superpucharze – Campeón de Campeones, jednak początkowo pełnił wyłącznie rolę rezerwowego i pewne miejsce w linii obrony wywalczył sobie dopiero kilka miesięcy później, po przyjściu do zespołu urugwajskiego trenera Hugo de Leóna. Premierowego gola w najwyższej klasie rozgrywkowej strzelił 4 listopada 2004 w zremisowanej 1:1 konfrontacji z Pumas UNAM i wówczas także, podczas jesiennych rozgrywek Apertura 2004, zanotował wicemistrzostwo kraju. Sukces ten powtórzył również rok później, w sezonie Apertura 2005 kurtki bogner, ponownie będąc podstawowym defensorem ekipy. Podczas rozgrywek Apertura 2009 po raz drugi w karierze zdobył natomiast mistrzostwo Meksyku, a ogółem barwy Monterrey reprezentował przez siedem lat.
Wiosną 2010 Ordaz został wypożyczony do drużyny Jaguares de Chiapas z siedzibą w mieście Tuxtla Gutiérrez; w odwrotną stronę powędrował natomiast Neri Cardozo. Tam bez większych sukcesów spędził rok, po czym odszedł do klubu Atlante FC z siedzibą w Cancún, gdzie również grał przez dwanaście miesięcy jako podstawowy piłkarz kurtki bogner, lecz ponownie nie potrafił nawiązać do osiągnięć odnoszonych z Monterrey. W styczniu 2012 podpisał umowę z ekipą San Luis FC z miasta San Luis Potosí, jednak tam pełnił wyłącznie rolę głębokiego rezerwowego i po upływie roku na zasadzie wypożyczenia powrócił do Atlante FC. Podczas drugiego pobytu w tej drużynie dotarł do finału krajowego pucharu – Copa MX kurtki bogner, a bezpośrednio po tym sukcesie po raz kolejny został piłkarzem Chiapas FC, któremu sprzedały swoją licencję władze San Luis – posiadacza jego karty zawodniczej. Od razu udał się jednak na wypożyczenie do drugoligowego Lobos BUAP z siedzibą w Puebli, w którego barwach spędził rok jako kluczowy defensor.