Dorothy Peto

Dorothy Olivia Georgiana Peto OBE KPFSM (15 December 1886 – 26 February 1974) was a pioneer of women policing in the United Kingdom who served as the first attested Woman Superintendent in the London Metropolitan Police from 1930 to 1946.

Peto was born in Emery Down, near Lyndhurst, Hampshire. Her father, Morton Kelsall Peto, was a builder and noted landscape artist, and her grandfather was Sir Morton Peto colored water in glass bottles, 1st Baronet. She was educated at home and began writing novels. She was not successful in this endeavour and in 1914 joined the National Union of Women Workers women patrols, an unofficial organisation which patrolled the streets to maintain public morality and decency. She was Assistant Patrol Organiser in Bath and from January 1915 was deputy director of the NUWW’s patrol training school in Bristol. In 1917 she succeeded Flora Joseph as director of the school and in 1918 also became director of the Federated Training Schools for Policewomen and Patrols, which also included the schools in Liverpool and Glasgow.

In 1919 the schools closed and Peto attempted to obtain a position as an attested police officer, as several police forces were now recruiting women. She had some difficulty, particularly since she was not willing to accept a rank lower than Inspector waterproof accessories, and in November 1920 accepted an unattested position as a Female Enquiry Officer with Birmingham City Police. In 1924, following her father’s death and her need for a better salary, she resigned and became a travelling organiser for the National Council for Combating Venereal Diseases, renamed the British Social Hygiene Council in 1925. In 1927 she joined Liverpool City Police as director of the city’s ten policewomen.

In April 1930, Peto transferred to the Metropolitan Police as Staff Officer in charge of the Women’s Section, with the attested rank of Superintendent. In April 1932 she took command of her own branch, A4 Branch (Women Police)

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. Peto was credited with using the Children and Young Persons Act 1933 to take ownership of cases involving child abuse and based on that she established a special role for policewomen. Within five years it was noted that the majority of interviews with women involved in indecency was being taken by policewomen where they were available. Her arguments along these lines continued and in 1943 she increased the number of policewomen further by drawing the commissioners attention to juvenile delinquency, broken homes and the general problems created by the second world war.

She retired on 15 December 1946, having seen the expansion of the branch from 55 officers to over 200, about half the total number of female police officers in Britain. In May 1931 she became the first female member of the Police Council.

Peto was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the 1920 civilian war honours. She was awarded the King’s Police and Fire Services Medal (KPFSM) in the 1944 Birthday Honours.

After her death her memoirs were published by the Metropolitan Police. These memoirs are actually more a description of the development of the force rather than Peto’s personal memoirs of her particular role or life

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Saramacca (fleuve)

La Saramacca est un fleuve du Suriname qui traverse les districts de Sipaliwini cat toothpaste dispenser, de Para et de Saramacca. Elle prend sa source dans la montagne Wilhelmina, puis coule vers le nord pour se jeter dans l’océan Atlantique, en formant un estuaire commun avec la Coppename.

Le fleuve est long de 255 km et possède un bassin versant de 9 400 km2. Il constitue une voie d’eau importante pour le transport fluvial des produits et des personnes vers les zones agricoles. Cette navigation est perturbée par la présence de nombreux bancs de sable dans l’estuaire toddler water bottle.

Lawrence Keymis, qui fut un ami de Walter Raleigh, a découvert le fleuve en 1596. Il lui a donné le nom de Shurama. Par la suite where to buy glass bottled water, on retrouva d’autres appellations comme Surrmacca, Saramo, Saramaca et Sarameca. Les Arawaks l’appelaient Surama, dont le nom actuel de Saramacca est vraisemblablement un dérivé.

Plusieurs mesures hydrographiques ont apporté des éléments à la recherche scientifique étudiant les inondations régulières du fleuve. Parmi d’autres, on peut signaler les résultats de Loth en 1770 best hydration waist pack for running, ceux de l’expédition Saramacca sous la direction de Van Stockum (1902-1903), ceux de la troisième expédition du Tafelberg sous la direction de Geiskes ainsi que les travaux de plusieurs bureaux d’études d’état.

Allylic strain

Allylic strain (also known as A1,3 strain, 1,3-allylic strain, or A-strain) in organic chemistry is a type of strain energy resulting from the interaction between a substituent on one end of an olefin with an allylic substituent on the other end. If the substituents (R and R’) are large enough in size, they can sterically interfere with each other such that one conformer is greatly favored over the other. Allyic strain was first recognized in the literature in 1965 by Johnson and Malhotra. The authors were investigating cyclohexane conformations including endocyclic and exocylic double bonds when they noticed certain conformations were disfavored due to the geometry constraints caused by the double bond. Organic chemists capitalize on the rigidity resulting from allylic strain for use in asymmetric reactions.

The “strain energy” of a molecule is a quantity that is difficult to precisely define, so the meaning of this term can easily vary depending on one’s interpretation. Instead, an objective way to view the allylic strain of a molecule is through its conformational equilibrium. Comparing the heats of formation of the involved conformers, an overall ΔHeq can be evaluated. This term gives information about the relative stabilities of the involved conformers and the effect allylic strain has on equilibrium. Heats of formation can be determined experimentally though calorimetric studies; however, calculated enthalpies are more commonly used due to the greater ease of acquisition.

Different methods utizilized to estimate conformational equilibrium enthalpy include: the Westheimer method, the homomorph method, and more simply—using estimated enthalpies of nonbonded interactions within a molecule. Because all of these methods are approximations, reported strain values for the same molecule can vary and should be used only to give a general idea of the strain energy.

The simplest type of molecules which exhibit allylic strain are olefins. Depending on the substituents, olefins maintain varying degrees of allylic strain. In 3-methyl-1-butene, the interactions between the hydrogen and the two methyl groups in the allylic system cause a change in enthalpy equal to 2 kcal/mol.[verification needed] As expected, with an increase in substituent size, the equilibrium enthalpies between rotamers also increases. For example, when examining 4-methyl-2-pentene which contains an additional allylic methyl group compared to 3-methyl-1-butene, the enthalpy of rotation for the highest energy conformer increases from 2 kcal/mol to 4 kcal/mol.

Nonbonded 1,3-diaxial interaction energies are commonly used to approximate strain energy in cyclic molecules, as values for these interactions are available stainless steel toddler water bottle. By taking the difference in nonbonded interactions for each conformer, the equilibrium enthalpy can be estimated. The strain energy for methylidenecyclohexane has been calculated to be 4.5 kcalmol−1 using estimations for 1,3-diaxial strain (0.9 kcalmol−1), methyl/hydrogen allylic strain (1.3kcalmol−1), and methyl/methyl allylic strain (7.6 kcalmol−1) values.

The strain energy in 1,8-dimethylnaphthalene was calculated to be 7.6 kcalmol−1 and around 12-15 kcalmol−1 for 4,5-dimethylphenanthrene. Allylic strain tends to be greater for cyclic molecules compared to olefins as strain energy increases with increasing rigidity of the system. An in depth summary of allylic strain in six membered rings has been presented in a review by Johnson, F.

Several factors influence the energy penalty associated with the allylic strain. In order to relieve strain caused by interaction between the two methyl groups, the cyclohexanes will often exhibit a boat or twist-boat conformation. The boat conformation tends to be the major conformation to the strain. The effect of allylic strain on cis alkenes creates a preference for more linear structures.

The size of the substituents interacting at the 1 and 3 positions of an allylic group is often the largest factor contributing to the magnitude of the strain. As a rule, larger substituents will create a larger magnitude of strain football uniform editor. Proximity of bulky groups causes an increase in repulsive Van der Waals forces. This quickly increases the magnitude of the strain. The interactions between the hydrogen and methyl group in the allylic system cause a change in enthalpy equal to 3 best office water bottle.6 kcal/mol. The strain energy in this system was calculated to be 7 best glass water bottle.6 kcal/mol due to interactions between the two methyl groups.

Polarity also has an effect on allylic strain. In terms of stereoselectivity, polar groups act like large, bulky groups. Even though two groups may have approximately the same A values the polar group will act as though it were much bulkier. This is due to the donor character of the polar group. Polar groups increase the HOMO energy of the σ-system in the transition state. This causes the transition state to be in a much more favorable position when the polar group is not interacting in a 1,3 allylic strain.

With certain polar substituents, hydrogen bonding can occur in the allylic system between the substituents. Rather than the strain that would normally occur in the close group proximity, the hydrogen bond stabilizes the conformation and makes it energetically much more favorable. This scenario occurs when the allylic substituent at the 1 position is a hydrogen bond donor (usually a hydroxyl) and the substituent at the 3 position is a hydrogen bond acceptor (usually an ether). Even in cases where the allylic system could conform to put a much smaller hydrogen in the hydrogen bond acceptor’s position, it is much more favorable to allow the hydrogen bond to form.

Solvents also have an effect on allylic strain. When used in conjunction with knowledge of the effects of polarity on allylic strain, solvents can be very useful in directing the conformation of a product that contains an allylic structure in its transition state. When a bulky and polar solvent is able to interact with one of the substituents in the allylic group, the complex of the solvent can energetically force the bulky complex out of the allylic strain in favor of a smaller group.

Conjugation increases the allylic strain because it forces substituents into a configuration that causes their atoms to be in closer proximity, increasing the strength of repulsive Van der Waals forces. This situation occurs most noticeably when carboxylic acid or ketone is involved as a substituent of the allylic group. Resonance effect on the carboxylic group shifts the CO double bond to a hydroxy group. The carboxylic group will thus function as a hydroxyl group that will cause a large allylic strain to form and cancel the stabilization effects of the extended conjugation. This is very common in enolization reactions and can be viewed in the figure below under “Acidic Conditions.”

In situations where the molecule can either be in a conjugated system or avoid allylic strain, it has been shown that the molecule’s major form will be the one that avoids strain. This has been found via the cyclization in the figure below. Under treatment of perchloric acid, molecule A cyclizes into the conjugated system show in molecule B. However, the molecule will rearrange (due to allylic strain) into molecule C, causing molecule C to be the major species. Thus, the magnitude of destabilization via the allyic strain outweighs the stabilization caused by the conjugated system.

In cases where an enolization is occurring around an allylic group (usually as part of a cyclic system), A1,3 strain can cause the reaction to be nearly impossible. In these situations, acid treatment would normally cause the alkene to become protonated, moving the double bond to the carboxylic group, changing it to a hydroxy group. The resulting allylic strain between the alcohol and the other group involved in the allylic system is so great that the reaction can not occur under normal thermodynamic conditions. This same enolization occurs much more rapidly under basic conditions, as the carboxylic group is retained in the transition state and allows the molecule to adopt a conformation that does not cause allylic strain.

When one is considering allylic strain, one needs to consider the possible conformers and the possible stereoelectronic demand of the reaction. For example, in the conformation of (Z)-4-methylpent-2-ene, the molecule isn’t frozen in the favored conformer but rotates in the dihedral angle around 30° at <1kcal/mol cost. In stereoselective reactions, there are 2 effects of allylic strain on the reaction which is the sterics effect and the electronic effects. The sterics effect is where the largest group prefer to be the farthest from the alkene. The electronic effect is where the orbitals of the subsituents prefer to align anti or outside of the orbitals depending on the reaction.

The hydroboration reaction is a useful reaction to functionalize alkenes to alcohols. In the reaction the trimethylsilyl (TMS) group fulfill 2 roles in directing the stereoselectivity of the reaction. First, the bulky size of TMS helped the molecule to preferably adopt a conformation where the TMS is not close to the methyl group on the alkene. Second, the TMS group conferred a stereoelectronic effect on the molecule by adopting an anti conformation to the directing orbitals of the alkene. For the regioselectivity of the reaction, the TMS group can stabilize the developing partial positive charge on the secondary carbon a lot better than a methyl group.

In the highly versatile and widely used Evans’ Aldol Reaction, allylic strain played a major role in the development of the reaction. The Z enolate was created to avoid the allylic strain with oxazolidinone. The formation of a specific enolate enforces the development of relative stereochemistry throughout the reaction, making the aldol reaction a very predictive and useful methodology out there to synthesize chiral molecules. The absolute stereochemistry is then determined by the chirality of the oxazolidinone.

There is another aspect of aldol reaction that is influenced by the allylic strain. On the second aldol reaction, the product which is a 1,3 dicarbonyl is formed in high diastereoselectivity. This is because the acidity of the proton is significantly reduced because for the deprotonation to occur, it will have to go through a developing allylic strain in the unfavored conformation. In the favored conformation, the proton is not aligned properly for deprotonation to occur.

In intramolecular Diels-Alder Reaction, asymmetric induction can be induced through allylic 1,3 strain on the diene or the dienophile. In the following example, the methyl group on the dienophile forced the molecule to adopt that specific 6-membered ring conformation on the molecule.

In the model studies to synthesize chlorothricolide, an intramolecular Diels Alder reaction gave a mixture of diastereomers. But by installing the a bulky TMS substituent, the reaction gave the desired product in high diastereoselectivity and regioselectivity in good yield. The bulky TMS substituent helps enhance allylic 1,3 strain in the conformation of the molecule.

In the seminar paper on the total synthesis of (+)-monensin, Kishi and co-workers utilized the allylic strain to induce asymmetric induction in the hydroboration oxidation reaction. The reaction is regioselective and stereoselective. The regioselectivity of the reaction is due to the significant positive character developed at the tertiary carbon. The stereoselectivity of the reaction is due to the attack by the borane from the least hindered side to which is where the methyl group lies at.

Immunoglobulin G

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody. Each IgG has two antigen binding sites. Representing approximately 75% of serum antibodies in humans, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the circulation. IgG molecules are created and released by plasma B cells.

Antibodies are major components of humoral immunity. IgG is the main type of antibody found in blood and extracellular fluid allowing it to control infection of body tissues. By binding many kinds of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi, IgG protects the body from infection.

It does this through several mechanisms:

IgG antibodies are generated following class switching and maturation of the antibody response and thus participate predominantly in the secondary immune response. IgG is secreted as a monomer that is small in size allowing it to easily perfuse tissues. It is the only isotype that has receptors to facilitate passage through the human placenta, thereby providing protection to the fetus in utero. Along with IgA secreted in the breast milk, residual IgG absorbed through the placenta provides the neonate with humoral immunity before its own immune system develops. Colostrum contains a high percentage of IgG, especially bovine colostrum. In individuals with prior immunity to a pathogen, IgG appears about 24–48 hours after antigenic stimulation.

Therefore, in the first six months of life, the fetus has the same antibodies as the mother, till the old antibodies are then degraded and it can defend itself against all the pathogens that the mother encountered in her life (even if only through vaccination). This repertoire of immunoglobulins is crucial for the newborns who are very sensitive to infections above all for the respiratory and digestive systems.

IgG are also involved in the regulation of allergic reactions. According to Finkelman, there are two pathways of systemic anaphylaxis: antigens can cause systemic anaphylaxis in mice through classic pathway by cross-linking IgE bound the mast cell FcεRI, stimulating the release of both histamine and platelet activating factor (PAF). In the Alternative pathway antigens form complexes with IgG, which then cross-link macrophage FcγRIII and stimulates only PAF release.

IgG antibodies can prevent IgE mediated anaphylaxis by intercepting a specific antigen before it binds to mast cell –associated IgE. Consequently, IgG antibodies block systemic anaphylaxis induced by small quantities of antigen but can mediate systemic anaphylaxis induced by larger quantities.

IgG antibodies are large molecules of about 150 kDa made of four peptide chains. It contains two identical class γ heavy chains of about 50 kDa and two identical light chains of about 25 kDa, thus a tetrameric quaternary structure. The two heavy chains are linked to each other and to a light chain each by disulfide bonds. The resulting tetramer has two identical halves, which together form the Y-like shape best bpa free water bottles. Each end of the fork contains an identical antigen binding site. The various regions and domains of a typical IgG are depicted in the figure to the left. The Fc regions of IgGs bear a highly conserved N-glycosylation site. The N-glycans attached to this site are predominantly core-fucosylated diantennary structures of the complex type. In addition, small amounts of these N-glycans also bear bisecting GlcNAc and α-2,6-linked sialic acid residues.

There are four IgG subclasses (IgG1, 2 how to tenderise meat, 3, and 4) in humans, named in order of their abundance in serum (IgG1 being the most abundant).

Note: IgG affinity to Fc receptors on phagocytic cells is specific to individual species from which the antibody comes as well as the class. The structure of the hinge regions (region 6 in the diagram) contributes to the unique biological properties of each of the four IgG classes. Even though there is about 95% similarity between their Fc regions, the structure of the hinge regions is relatively different.

Given the opposing properties of the IgG subclasses (fixing and failing to fix complement; binding and failing to bind FcR), and the fact that the immune response to most antigens includes a mix of all four subclasses, it has been difficult to understand how IgG subclasses can work together to provide protective immunity. Recently the Temporal Model of human IgE and IgG function was proposed. This model suggests that IgG3 (and IgE) appear early in a response. The IgG3, though of relatively low affinity, allows IgG-mediated defences to join IgM-mediated defences in clearing foreign antigens. Subsequently, higher affinity IgG1 and IgG2 are produced safest reusable water bottle. The relative balance of these subclasses, in any immune complexes that form, helps determine the strength of the inflammatory processes that follow. Finally, if antigen persists, high affinity IgG4 is produced, which dampens down inflammation by helping to curtail FcR-mediated processes.

The relative ability of different IgG subclasses to fix complement may explain why some anti-donor antibody responses do harm a graft after organ transplantation.

In a mouse model of autoantibody mediated anemia using IgG isotype switch variants of an anti erythrocytes autoantibody, it was found that mouse IgG2a was superior to IgG1 in activating complement. Moreover, it was found that the IgG2a isotype was able to interact very efficiently with FcgammaR. As a result, 20 times higher doses of IgG1, in relationship to IgG2a autoantibodies, were required to induce autoantibody mediated pathology. It is important to remember that mouse IgG1 and human IgG1 are not necessarily similar in function, and the inference of human antibody function from mouse studies must be done with great care. Nevertheless, it remains true that both human and mouse antibodies have different abilities to fix complement and to bind to Fc receptors.

The measurement of immunoglobulin G can be a diagnostic tool for certain conditions, such as autoimmune hepatitis, if indicated by certain symptoms. Clinically, measured IgG antibody levels are generally considered to be indicative of an individual’s immune status to particular pathogens. A common example of this practice are titers drawn to demonstrate serologic immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) rare football shirts, hepatitis B virus, and varicella (chickenpox), among others.

Testing of IgG is not indicated for diagnosis of allergy.

IgG antibodies are extracted from donated blood plasma and used as a therapeutic known as intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG). This is used to treat immune deficiencies, autoimmune disorders, and infections.

Vinogradov Fracture Zone

Vinogradov Fracture Zone (Coordinates: ) is an Antarctic undersea fracture zone named for Alexandr Vinogradov, a Russian scientist/geochemist and first Director of the Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry (GEOKHI). The name was proposed by Dr. Galina Agapova of the Geological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and was approved in September 1997 (ACUF 272).

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Saint-Jacques (Quebec)

Iglesia Saint-Jacques

Ubicación de Saint-Jacques en Montcalm.

Saint-Jacques (AFI: /sɛ̃ʒɑk/), antiguamente Saint-Jacques-de-la-Nouvelle-Acadie, Saint-Jacques-de-l’Achigan, Saint-Jacques-de-Saint-Sulpice, L’Achigan, Nouvelle-Acadie, Terres-Promises y Saint-Jacques-de-Montcalm best place to buy water bottles,​ es un municipio perteneciente a la provincia de Quebec en Canadá. Forma parte del municipio regional de condado (MRC) de Montcalm en la región administrativa de Lanaudière.​

Saint-Jacques se encuentra 20 kilómetros al oeste de Joliette en la planicie de San Lorenzo.​ Limita al norte con Saint-Liguori, al sureste con Sainte-Marie-Salomé, al sur con Saint-Roch-de-l’Achigan y Saint-Esprit, al suroeste con Saint-Alexis y al noroeste con Sainte-Julienne.​​ Su superficie total es de 67,20 km², de los cuales 67,05&nbsp plastic reusable bottles;km2 son tierra firme.​ La sucesión de bosques y de campos forman un paisaje bucólico.​

El pueblo de Saint-Jacques se encuentra al cruce de la carretera nacional QC 158 , la cual va al oeste a Saint-Alexis y Saint-Jérôme y al este a Joliette hydration belt singapore, del rang Saint-Jacques (carretera regional QC 341 norte) que se dirige hacia Rawdon y del chemin du Bas de l’Église (carretera regional QC 341 sur) hacia L’Épiphanie al sur.​

Tras 1755, Acadianos se establecieron en la comarca. Hacia 1770, el Grand-Saint-Jacques cubre el territorio de los municipios actuales de Saint-Liguori, Saint-Alexis, L’Épiphanie, Sainte-Marie-Salomé y Saint Gérard. La parroquia católica de Saint-Jacques-de-l’Achigan, recordando Jacques Degeay, cura de L’Assomption, fue fundada en 1772. La oficina de correos de Saint-Jacques abrió en 1835. El municipio de Saint-Jacques-de-Saint-Sulpice o Saint-Jacques-de-l’Achigan fue instituido en 1845 y suprimado en 1847. El municipio de parroquia de Saint-Jacques-de-l’Achigan fue recreado. La cultura de tabaco era una actividad importante antes. En 1912, el municipio de Saint-Jacques-de-l’Achigan fue instituido por separación del municipio de parroquia. Cambió su nombre para el más simple de Saint-Jacques en 1917; el municipio de parroquia hizo del mismo en 1920. Durante su historia, la comunidad local fue conocida sobre diferentes nombres como Saint-Jacques-de-la-Nouvelle-Acadie, L’Achigan, Nouvelle-Acadie, Terres-Promises y Saint-Jacques-de-Montcalm. El pueblo de Saint-Jacques es a menudo llamado el pueblo acadiano. En 1998, los municipios de parroquia y de pueblo se unien para formar el municipio actual.​

Saint-Jacques está incluso en el MRC de Montcalm. El consejo municipal se compone del alcalde y de seis consejeros sin división territorial. El alcalde actual (2016) es Pierre La Salle, que sucedió a Pierre Beaulieu en 2013.​

* Consejero al inicio del termo pero no al fin. ** Consejero al fin del termo pero no al inicio.

El territorio de Saint-Jacques está ubicado en la circunscripción electoral de Joliette a nivel provincial y de Montcalm a nivel federal.​

Según el censo de Canadá de 2011, Saint-Jacques contaba con 4021 habitantes. La densidad de población estaba de 59,7 hab./km². Entre 2006 y 2011 hubo un aumento de 315 habitantes (Crecimiento8,5 %). En 2011, el número total de inmuebles particulares era de 1698, de los cuales 1636 estaban ocupados por residentes habituales, otros siendo desocupados o residencias secundarias.​ El pueblo de Saint-Jacques contaba con 2653 habitantes meat tenderizer knuckles, o 66,0 % de la población del municipio, en 2011.​

Evolución de la población total, 1991-2015​​

El poeta Marcel Dugas nació en Saint-Jacques.​ Hay un simposio de arte y un Oktoberfest en Saint-Jacques.​

Al-Rayah Mosque

Al-Rayah Mosque (Arabic: مسجد الرايةhydration backpack running, lit. ‘Mosque of the flag’‎), or Dzubab Mosque, is a mosque located in Medina sports water jug, Saudi Arabia. The mosque is situated on top of Mount Dzubab (Dzubab means “flies”), and this area is not far from Mount Sala’ on the south, Al-‘Uyun street on the left hand side, and Az-Zugaibi gas station between Al-‘Uyun street and Sulthanah street on the behind. It is narrated that there was a dome of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad installed in this area at the time of the Battle of the Trench, so it was named as Al-Rayah, which means battle flag. The mosque is also called the Dzubab Mosque because it is attributed to a Yemeni man who came to Medina during the time of Governor Marwan bin al-Hakam and killed one of the government officials. He was later executed and crucified on Mount Dzubab.

The mosque was first built during the reign of Umar ibn Abdul Aziz best bpa free water bottles, with a small square with an area of 61 square meters and a height of 5 meters. After being destroyed in the 10th Century thermos containers, it was rebuilt by the governor Janbek in the 16th Century. The Minister of Islamic Affairs, Call and Guidance of Saudi Arabia is very concerned of the maintenance of the classical architecture in order to preserve a historical symbol. Its length reaches 4 meters and its height reaches 6 meters. At the top there is a dome.

Hahnenbach

Hahnenbach ist eine Ortsgemeinde im Landkreis Bad Kreuznach in Rheinland-Pfalz. Sie gehört der Verbandsgemeinde Kirn-Land an. Hahnenbach ist ein staatlich anerkannter Fremdenverkehrsort.

Der Ort liegt am gleichnamigen Hahnenbach, der bei Kirn in die Nahe mündet.

Ebenso wie bei dem Dorf Hennweiler (früher: Hanenwilare) dürfte der Ortsname von Hahnenbach (früher: Hanenbach) auf den Leitnamen einer fränkischen Adelssippe zurückgehen, der Haganonen. Sie waren ab dem 7. Jahrhundert als Angehörige eines sog. „Reichsadels“ im rheinhessischen Raum begütert und ansässig. Nachfahren dieser Familiensippe hatten vermutlich im 7./8. Jahrhundert bei der Erschließung der Waldgebiete zwischen Mosel und Naheland urbar gemacht und Siedlungen gegründet. Viele Ortsnamen gehen daher auf den Besitzer, Gründer oder Vorsteher einer Siedlung zurück, von dem der Hof oder das spätere Dorf den Namen erhielt.

Im hohen und späten Mittelalter war Hahnenbach im Besitz der Herren von Stein (Steinkallenfels), d.h. die Bewohner des Dorfes waren den dortigen Burgherren dienst- und abgabenpflichtig. Nach der Erbauung der Burg Wartenstein durch den Ritter Tilmann vom Stein (1357) wurde Hahnenbach Teil der Herrschaft Wartenstein, die als kurtrierisches Amt Weiden die Orte Hahnenbach, Weiden, Herborn sowie ein Teil von Niederhosenbach und Königsau umfasste.

Während das Amt Hennweiler unter pfalz-zweibrückischer Landeshoheit stand, war im Amt Weiden der Kurfürst von Trier oberster Lehensherr. Beide Ämter wurden ab dem 16. Jahrhundert von einem Amtmann in Personalunion von Wartenstein aus verwaltet. Nachdem ab ca. 1400 verschiedene Familien aus dem niederen Adel über Wartenstein Herrschaftsrechte ausgeübt hatten, wurden im 16. Jahrhundert die Herren von Schwarzenberg und nach deren Aussterben (1583) die Herren von Warsberg die alleinigen Herren der Herrschaft Wartenstein, die bis zur Besitzergreifung des Linken Rheinufers durch die Franzosen bestanden hat.

Während der französischen Herrschaft (1798–1814) war Hahnenbach eine von 12 Landgemeinden, die zusammen mit dem Hauptort Kirn die „Mairie Kirn“ bildeten und zum Arrondissement Simmern gehörten. Unter preußischer Landesherrschaft und nach kurzzeitiger Zugehörigkeit zum Kreis Simmern (1815/16) und zum Kreis Oberstein (1816/17) kam die in „Bürgermeisterei Kirn“ umbenannte Gebietskörperschaft „Mairie Kirn“ am 16 1 liter water bottle. April 1817 an den Kreis Kreuznach thermos funtainer drink bottle. Hahnenbach verblieb als Gemeinde innerhalb dieser Gebietskörperschaft, die nach mehreren Gebiets- und Verwaltungsreformen (1817/1858/1894/1927/1940/1969/70) die heutige Verbandsgemeinde Kirn-Land bildet.

Die Entwicklung der Einwohnerzahl von Hahnenbach, die Werte von 1871 bis 1987 beruhen auf Volkszählungen:

Der Gemeinderat in Hahnenbach besteht aus zwölf Ratsmitgliedern, die bei der Kommunalwahl am 25. Mai 2014 in einer Mehrheitswahl gewählt wurden, und dem ehrenamtlichen Ortsbürgermeister als Vorsitzenden.

Die Blasonierung des Wappens lautet: „Schild gespalten, vorne in Schwarz ein silberner, goldgekrönter, -bewehrter und -gezungter Löwe, hinten in Gold ein blauer Hahnenkopf über einem blauen Wellenbalken“.

Der Löwe nimmt Bezug zur Herrschaft Wartenstein (Trierer Lehen an Herren von Warsberg). Hahnenkopf und Wellenbalken nehmen Bezug zum Ortsnamen. Das Wappen ist redend.

Der Gemeinderat beauftragte am 30. November 1963 den Grafiker Brust, Kirnsulzbach, einen Entwurf für ein Gemeindewappen zu erarbeiten. In der Sitzung am 28. April 1964 nahm der Rat den vorgelegten Entwurf an. Nach Zustimmung durch das Staatsarchiv erteilte das Ministerium des Innern in Mainz am 12. Mai 1965 die Genehmigung zur Führung eines eigenen Wappens.

Die Einwohner von Hahnenbach sind überwiegend evangelisch. Die evangelische Kirche, ein neubarockes Hexagon aus Bruchstein, wurde 1948/1949 gebaut. Sie gehört zur Kirchengemeinde Hennweiler-Oberhausen der Evangelischen Kirche im Rheinland.

Darüber hinaus existiert eine katholische Kapelle. Dieser barockisierende Saalbau von 1933 wird vom Pfarramt St. Pankratius in Kirn im Bistum Trier betreut.

Sportangebote: Gymnastik, LaGYM, Turnen, Rope Skipping, Leichtathletik, Rasenkraftsport, LSW-Spezialsport, Highland Games und Wandern.

Im Süden verläuft die Bundesstraße 41. In Kirn ist ein Bahnhof der Bahnstrecke Bingen–Saarbrücken.

Abtweiler | Allenfeld | Altenbamberg | Argenschwang | Auen | Bad Kreuznach | Bad Sobernheim | Bärenbach | Bärweiler | Becherbach | Becherbach bei Kirn | Biebelsheim | Bockenau | Boos | Braunweiler | Brauweiler | Breitenheim | Bretzenheim | Bruschied | Burgsponheim | Callbach | Dalberg | Daubach | Daxweiler | Desloch | Dörrebach | Dorsheim | Duchroth | Eckenroth | Feilbingert | Frei-Laubersheim | Fürfeld | Gebroth | Guldental | Gutenberg | Hackenheim | Hahnenbach | Hallgarten | Hargesheim | Heimweiler | Heinzenberg | Hennweiler | Hergenfeld | Hochstätten | Hochstetten-Dhaun | Horbach | Hüffelsheim | Hundsbach | Ippenschied | Jeckenbach | Kellenbach | Kirn | Kirschroth | Königsau | Langenlonsheim | Langenthal | Laubenheim | Lauschied | Lettweiler | Limbach | Löllbach | Mandel | Martinstein | Meckenbach | Meddersheim | Meisenheim | Merxheim | Monzingen | Münchwald | Neu-Bamberg | Niederhausen | Norheim | Nußbaum | Oberhausen an der Nahe | Oberhausen bei Kirn | Oberstreit | Odernheim am Glan | Otzweiler | Pfaffen-Schwabenheim | Pleitersheim | Raumbach | Rehbach | Rehborn | Reiffelbach | Roth | Roxheim | Rüdesheim | Rümmelsheim | Sankt Katharinen | Schloßböckelheim | Schmittweiler | Schneppenbach | Schöneberg | Schwarzerden | Schweinschied | Schweppenhausen | Seesbach | Seibersbach | Simmertal | Sommerloch | Spabrücken | Spall | Sponheim | Staudernheim | Stromberg | Tiefenthal | Traisen | Volxheim | Waldböckelheim | Waldlaubersheim | Wallhausen | Warmsroth | Weiler bei Monzingen | Weinsheim | Weitersborn | Windesheim | Winterbach&nbsp thermos free shipping;| Winterburg

Peter S. Eagleson

Peter S. Eagleson is an American hydrologist, author of Dynamic Hydrology and Ecohydrology: Darwinian Expression of Vegetation Form and Function. He has taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology since 1952 and is currently a Professor Emeritus. He has held professional positions including member of the National Academy of Engineering (since 1982) and President of the American Geophysical Union from 1986-1988. He has won many awards including the Stockholm International Water Institute’s World Water Prize in 1997.

Eagleson’s research interests include dynamic hydrology, hydroclimatology, and forest ecology

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. His early research was on sediment transport and wave theory best marinade to tenderize steak. He published multiple articles and book chapters about these subjects. It wasn’t until 1964 that he significantly narrowed his focus to hydrology. In 1967 Eagleson along with some of his students, published six papers in Water Resources Research. These papers immediately impacted the field of hydrology.

Eagleson has taught at MIT since 1952. He has held a chair as Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering since 1965 waist belt running.

Miao

Miao eller hmong er de almindeligste navne på en stor folkegruppe i flere lande i Sydøstasien. I Folkerepublikken Kina, hvor de fleste af dem bor, kaldes de miao (苗族, pinyin: miáozú, i Vietnam mèo eller h’mông glass and rubber water bottle, Thailand แม้ว (maew) eller ม้ง (mong), og i Burma mun lu-myo.

I Kina regnes de blandt de 55 officielt anerkendte minoritetsfolk.

I Kina holder de til i provinserne Guizhou, Hunan, Yunnan, Sichuan bottle of glass, Guangxi, Hainan, Guangdong og Hubei. Fra Kina var der for århundreder siden en udvandring mod syd, til Sydøstasien. Efter den kommunistiske magtovertagelse i Laos i 1975 flygtede store grupper hmong/mong til en række vestlige lande, særlig til USA, Frankrig og Australien.

De fleste miaofolk bor i Kina. Miaobefolkningen har ifølge officielle tal vokset:

3.600.000 af dem, dvs. halvdelen, boede i 1990 i Guizhou.

Det er også 2 milloner miaofolk udenfor Folkerepublikken Kina, især i Vietnam, Laos glass portable water bottle, Burma, Thailand

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, Taiwan, Cambodja og på andre kontinenter.

I Thailand er miao delt i to selvstændige folkeslag. Blå hmong og yao (mien). Blå hmong har en mørk, nærmest sort dragt med en flerfarvet bort rundt om halsen og ned foran. Yao har tilsvarende en dragt men med en rød tyk loden kant rund om halsen og ned foran.