Rosa pimpinellifolia

Rosa pimpinellifolia, the burnet rose, is a species of rose native to western, central and southern Europe (north to Iceland and Norway) and northwest Africa. It is generally restricted to sand dunes or limestone pavements and typically has a coastal distribution when not on limestone. In emblematic terms it is particularly associated with Scotland, where it is traditionally referenced in poetry and song, and is a symbolic native plant second only to the thistle.
It is a rather low erect deciduous plant usually from 20–140 cm high but sometimes up to 2 metres. It spreads by basal shoots and can cover large areas. The stems have very numerous stiff bristles and many straight prickles. The young stems and prickles and the mature leaves tend to be very red with young growth a bright scarlet and older growth a deep maroon.
The flowers are cream-white although rarely also pale pink. They are 2–4 cm diameter with five petals, which produce a distinctive globular dark purple to black hips.
Similar plants native further east in Asia, sometimes treated as Rosa pimpinellifolia var. subalpina, are now regarded as a separate species Rosa oxyacantha (Flora of China); it differs in having pink flowers and red hips.
Young stem with spines.
The fruit – called hip.
‘Plena’ a commonly grown cultivar.
In the Dutch dunes with hoverfly.

KGet

Kget est un gestionnaire de téléchargement intégré à l’environnement de bureau KDE, en particulier à Konqueror, qui permet de télécharger des fichiers depuis un site Web, site ftp ou lien metalink, de manière souvent plus efficace et pratique qu’avec un navigateur web.

Kget propose dès son premier lancement de s’intégrer à Konqueror, de manière à ce qu’il prenne en charge tous les téléchargements effectués depuis Internet par ce dernier.
Tout fichier téléchargé ou glissé-déposé (le fameux drag and drop) depuis un navigateur web dans la fenêtre ou sur l’icône de Kget, voire ajouté manuellement depuis l’interface de Kget, vient s’ajouter à la liste des téléchargements, où il est possible de voir l’état et la progression de chaque téléchargement.
La liste de téléchargement permet de gérer chaque téléchargement individuellement, que ce soit en attribuant des priorités, en mettant en pause, en supprimant ou en reprenant un téléchargement, voire la totalité de la liste.
Il est possible de configurer Kget pour qu’il télécharge automatiquement toute chose (image, lien, vidéo, musique, etc.) copiée depuis le menu contextuel de la souris. Ainsi, le simple fait d’effectuer un clic-droit avec la souris sur une image et de sélectionner « copier » va automatiquement ajouter l’adresse de l’image à la liste de téléchargement de Kget, de manière à ce qu’elle soit effectivement récupérée.
Kget permet de définir des limitations de bande passante afin que les téléchargements en cours ne la consomme pas entièrement et qu’il soit possible de continuer à avoir une autre activité sur Internet sans que celle-ci soit notablement ralentie.
Kget permet également, dans ses options, d’enregistrer automatiquement les fichiers téléchargés dans des répertoires différents en fonction de leur extension. Les images au format png dans un dossier, les musiques au format ogg dans un autre, par exemple.

1996 Russian Top League

In 1996 the Russian Top League was extended to 18 clubs. The following is a summary of 1996 teams and people.

Source: rsssf.com {{{2}}} Rules for classification: 1) points; 2) goal difference; 3) number of goals scored (C) = Champion; (R) = Relegated; (P) = Promoted; (E) = Eliminated; (O) = Play-off winner; (A) = Advances to a further round. Only applicable when the season is not finished: (Q) = Qualified to the phase of tournament indicated; (TQ) = Qualified to tournament, but not yet to the particular phase indicated; (RQ) = Qualified to the relegation tournament indicated; (DQ) = Disqualified from tournament.
As Alania and Spartak finished at the top of the table with equal points, the title was decided in a championship play-off.
Spartak Moscow v Alania Vladikavkaz
Notes.
Goalkeepers: Aleksandr Filimonov (26), Ruslan Nigmatullin (10). Defenders: Sergei Gorlukovich (31 / 2), Dmitri Ananko (30 / 1), Vadim Evseev (27 / 2), Aleksandr Lipko (24), Vladislav Duyun (18 / 1), Yuriy Nikiforov (14 / 5), Ramiz Mamedov (14), Konstantin Golovskoy (9), Sergei Chudin (6). Midfielders: Andrey Tikhonov (34 / 16), Dmitri Alenichev (32 / 7), Yegor Titov (31 / 5), Valery Kechinov (30 / 13), Aleksei Melyoshin (24 / 2), Ilya Tsymbalar (21 / 9), Andrei Piatnitski (13), Andrei Konovalov (11), Artyom Bezrodny (10), Aleksandr Pavlenko (2), Yevgeni Toloknov (1). Forwards: Vladimir Dzhubanov (25 / 3), Aleksandr Shirko (22 / 5), Valeri Shmarov (3), Konstantin Kovalenko (2 / 1), Serhiy Nahornyak (2). (league appearances and goals listed in brackets)
Manager: Georgi Yartsev.
Transferred out during the season: Yuriy Nikiforov (to Sporting Gijón), Valeri Shmarov (to Chunnam Dragons), Serhiy Nahornyak (to FC Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk).
Goalkeepers: Dmitriy Kramarenko (22), Zaur Khapov (16). Defenders: Omari Tetradze (31 / 1), Artur Pagayev (30 / 1), Alan Agayev (29 / 3), Inal Dzhioyev (29 / 1), Murtaz Shelia (27 / 5), Oleg Kornienko (22), Aslan Datdeyev (11 / 1). Midfielders: Igor Yanovskiy (34 / 5), Bakhva Tedeyev (28 / 11), Sergey Timofeev (25), Zaza Revishvili (19 / 1), Mirjalol Qosimov (17 / 11), Georgi Botsiyev (16), Robert Bitarov (13 / 1), Sergei Derkach (12 / 1), Gocha Jamarauli (9), Vitaliy Skysh (6). Forwards: Anatoli Kanishchev (33 / 7), Nazim Suleymanov (25 / 11), Oleg Sergeyev (13 / 2), Tamerlan Sikoyev (8 / 1), Valeri Klimov (6 / 1).
One own goal scored by Albert Oskolkov (FC Lokomotiv Nizhny Novgorod).
Manager: Valery Gazzaev.
Transferred out during the season: Gocha Jamarauli (to FC Dinamo Tbilisi), Valeri Klimov (to FC Arsenal Tula).
Goalkeepers: Andrei Samorukov (34). Defenders: Albert Borzenkov (33), Valeri Burlachenko (28 / 1), Aleksandr Shmarko (28 / 1), Volodymyr Gerashchenko (21), Sergei Zhunenko (16), Ihor Zhabchenko (3), Aleksandr Yeshchenko (1), Sergei Khramtsov (1). Midfielders: Oleg Veretennikov (33 / 19), Aleksandr Berketov (33 / 5), Valery Yesipov (33 / 1), Ihor Korniyets (33), Maksim Tishchenko (31 / 4), Hennadiy Orbu (20 / 2), Vitali Abramov (11 / 1), Aleksandr Tsarenko (7), Andrei Krivov (6 / 1), Ilya Borodin (3 / 1), Emil Tsatskin (3). Forwards: Vladimir Niederhaus (31 / 16), Aleksandr Zernov (30 / 3), Sergei Ilyushin (18 / 2), Mikhail Potylchak (3).
One own goal scored by Sergei Makeyev (FC Krylia Sovetov Samara).
Manager: Viktor Prokopenko .
Transferred out during the season: Aleksandr Tsarenko (to FC Tekstilshchik Kamyshin), Emil Tsatskin (to FC Rostselmash Rostov-on-Don), Mikhail Potylchak (to FC Torpedo Volzhsky), Aleksandr Yeshchenko (to FC Zhemchuzhina Sochi).

Regionalliga Ouest (1963-1974) 1971-1972

Territoire de la Regionalliga West de 1963 à 1974
Navigation
Regionalliga West 1970-1971 Regionalliga West 1972-1973
modifier
Le Regionalliga West 1971-1972 est la neuvième édition de la Regionalliga West, une ligue située au 2e niveau de la hiérarchie du football ouest-allemand.
Elle couvrait le même territoire que les anciennes Oberliga et 2. Oberliga West, c’est-à-dire le Länder de Rhénanie du Nord-Wesphalie, donc les clubs affiliés à une des trois fédérations composant la Westdeutscher Fußball-und Leichtathletikverband (WFLV).
Selon le règlement en vigueur, il n’y eut jamais de promu direct depuis les Regionalligen vers la Bundesliga. Un tour final annuel regroupa les champions et qualifiés de chaque Regionalliga afin de désigner les deux promus.

À la fin de cette saison, deux clubs affiliés à la Westdeutscher Fußball-und Leichtathletikverband (WFLV) (B. Dortmund et A. Bielefeld) furent relégués de la Bundesliga.
La relégation de l’Arminia Bielefeld faisait suite au “Bundesliga Skandal”, dans lequel ce cercle fut impliqué.
À la fin de la saison, les trois derniers classés furent relégués vers les séries de Verbandsliga. Un club de la Regionalliga West (Wuppertal) fut promu en Bundesliga lors du tour final mais deux autres cercles de cette même zone furent relégué de l’élite. Il y eut donc un descendant supplémentaire hors de la Regionalliga !
Les deux promus furent :

Page ad hoc sur Wikipédia en Allemand et en Anglais

Daley (musician)

Gareth Daley (born 29 September 1989), better known professionally as Daley (pronounced day-lee), is a British recording artist and songwriter. Daley first became prominent after co-writing and featuring on the Gorillaz 2010 single “Doncamatic”, having been spotted by the band’s creator Damon Albarn early in his career as an underground artist on the London music scene. The song exposed him to a wider international audience. In 2011, his mixtape Those Who Wait mixtape was independently released and achieved 150,000 downloads over its first twelve months. Its success saw him promptly signed to Universal Music.
The next two years saw him releasing two top 30 singles on the UK Singles Chart, including 2012’s “Remember Me” featuring singer Jessie J and 2013’s “Broken”. Daley’s debut album Days & Nights was released in February 2014 to critical acclaim and generated the Pharrell Williams produced top ten hit “Look Up” on the Billboard’s Adult R&B Songs. Next to opening for the likes of Miguel, Maxwell, Emeli Sande, Jill Scott and Maverick Sabre, Daley has headlined venues like KOKO, Highline Ballroom, El Rey Theatre, 930 Club, and the Buckhead Theatre in Atlanta.

Daley was born and brought up in the suburbs of Manchester in the North-West of England. He completed secondary school, college and University studying Design & Art Direction at Manchester Metropolitan, pursuing music in his free time. He lived in Manchester until age 21, when he quit his job as a Graphic Designer and relocated to London to focus on making music.
With just a Myspace page and some early demos, Daley took to the London live scene, performing at open-mic nights, jam sessions and new talent stages including ‘Troy Bar’ in Hoxton, ‘iLuvLive’ in Camden and widely respected music industry showcase ‘Wired’ at Shoreditch House. He would often find himself on the same stages as fellow emerging artists Ed Sheeran, Jessie J, Emeli Sande and Maverick Sabre – who later became his contemporaries and many of which he has since collaborated or toured with.
While steadily making a name for himself Daley caught the attention of Gorillaz co-creator Damon Albarn, who invited him to meet and work on new material for the cartoon band’s ‘Plastic Beach’ album, resulting in their 2011 single Doncamatic which Daley co-wrote and fronted as lead vocalist. It shot him into the spotlight, appearing in the band’s first non-cartoon music video and joining the Escape to Plastic Beach World Tour, along with Little Dragon, De La Soul, Lou Reed and Snoop Dogg.
The collaboration enhanced Daley’s visibility within the industry, and early radio airplay started largely at BBC Radio 1Xtra, who’s DJ’s Twin B, Ras Kwame, Ronnie Herel and MistaJam all championed the singer. This eventually lead to him taking part in emerging artist discovery platform BBC Introducing, where he was invited to record three of his songs at the world famous Maida Vale Studios in London, and began to attract the attention of record labels.
Those Who Wait
Daley’s first solo offering came in the form of the ‘Those Who Wait’ mixtape in late 2011, an independently released free-download which was distributed through his official website Daley.TV. The mixtape achieved 50,000 downloads in its first month, increasing to 150,000 downloads over the twelve months that followed and garnered Daley support from UK media including BBC’s ‘Sound of…’ poll and online buzz from bloggers and fans alike. It consisted of ten songs, and showcased a left-of-center, Alternative R&B sound, emotive songwriting style and soulful vocal performance. Stand out tracks included Those Who Wait, Game Over, Smoking Gun, and an acoustic cover of Maxwell’s Pretty Wings – which became a viral favourite.
Daley has become known for his Alternative R&B sound, which contains hints of Soul, Electronica and Pop. His songwriting is vocal-lead and puts emphasis on vocal performance and arrangement, a trait that has often defined him when compared to his male contemporaries. He has referred to his sound as ‘Future-Throwback’ in interviews, stating that the music has a familiar, occasionally nostalgic feel, contemporised with a futuristic sonic and production. Daley has stated that he has been influenced predominantly by a mix of US and UK sounds and songwriters, has cited some of his influences as: Prince, Chaka Khan, Radiohead, Maxwell, Sade, Joni Mitchell, Imogen Heap and George Michael.
Daley tours throughout the US, UK and Europe and has sold-out headline shows from London’s KOKO, to New York’s SOB’s and Highline Ballroom, to the El Rey Theatre in Los Angeles, 930 Club in Washington DC and the Buckhead Theatre in Atlanta.
Over the last year Daley has completed three largely sold-out headline tours around the US with legs in Europe, as well as a series of festivals and support shows, and has announced plans to be on the road again in Summer 2015.
Artists he has performed with include: Gorillaz, Miguel, Jessie J, Emeli Sande, Maxwell, Jill Scott, Maverick Sabre, Kelly Rowland and Earth, Wind & Fire.
Headline Tours
Headline USA (18 dates)
Support Tours
Festivals

Rock Swings

Rock Swings is an album by Paul Anka. Recorded in November 2004 and released on May 31, 2005 in Canada and June 7, 2005 in the United States, it contains swing jazz covers of popular rock and pop songs from the 1980s and 1990s.
The idea of an established vocalist giving rock hits a “standards” treatment was earlier realized by Anka’s contemporary Pat Boone in the 1997 album, In a Metal Mood: No More Mr. Nice Guy, with Boone doing covers of songs by Alice Cooper, Van Halen and Judas Priest. That same year, Steve Lawrence and Eydie Gormé covered Soundgarden’s “Black Hole Sun” in a lounge-jazz style on the 1997 compilation album release, Lounge-A-Palooza. Anka also covers “Black Hole Sun” on Rock Swings.
Reportedly, the Michael Jackson song “Billie Jean” was slated to be on the album in the recording stages, but Paul Anka could not get through a vocal take without bursting into laughter. The album features “It’s My Life” by Bon Jovi, a song which includes the line “Like Frankie said, ‘I did it my way'” – a tongue-in-cheek reference to the Sinatra classic “My Way”, the lyrics to which were written by Anka.
After the release of this album, Anka was awarded a star on Canada’s Walk of Fame in Toronto. A DVD release of the same name, including live performances of these songs by Anka, was released on December 6, 2005.

Debuted at:

Nothing but the Beat

Nothing but the Beat is the fifth studio album by French DJ and record producer David Guetta, released on August 26, 2011. Released as a double album, the first disc features collaborations with artists from the R&B, hip hop and pop worlds such as Lil Wayne, Taio Cruz, Nicki Minaj, Ludacris, Snoop Dogg, Afrojack, Chris Brown, Flo Rida, Usher, Jennifer Hudson, Dev, Timbaland, Jessie J and Sia. Also making appearances are will.i.am, Akon and Ne-Yo, all three of whom previously collaborated with Guetta on his fourth album, One Love. In comparison, the second disc features purely instrumental tracks. The album is also Guetta’s first album not to feature long-time collaborator Chris Willis on vocals. Critical reviews of the album were mixed.
The album spawned four singles which attained success on the Billboard Hot 100 – “Where Them Girls At”, “Without You”, “Turn Me On” and “Titanium” – becoming his third, fourth, fifth and sixth top 20 singles, respectively. On November 30, 2011, the album received a nomination for Grammy Award for Best Dance/Electronica Album at the 54th Grammy Awards. As of October 2012, the album has sold 407,000 copies in the US, and has received platinum certification by the IFPI for sales exceeding 1,000,000 copies throughout Europe. On March 26, 2012, the album was released as a standalone package, via the iTunes Store. This version was previously released through Beatport.
The album was then re-released on September 7, 2012 under the name Nothing but the Beat 2.0. It includes six new tracks including lead single “She Wolf (Falling to Pieces)”, which features Sia, who previously collaborated with Guetta on “Titanium”. The remixes of this single were released exclusively through Beatport on August 7, 2012. Several tracks from the original album have been removed from the re-release, however all the singles have been retained. A final edition of the album dubbed Nothing but the Beat Ultimate, was released on 10 December 2012 featuring the original album plus all of the new songs from the 2.0 edition – though contained the full-length edits of “Sunshine”, “Lunar” and “Metropolis”, as opposed to the shorter edits on 2.0 – and a 16-second shorter version of “Where Them Girls At”. It is noteworthy that all ten main singles from Nothing but the Beat, including the Guetta version of “Sweat”, have peaked within the top-twenty of the UK Singles Chart and as of January 2015 have all together gone on to sell in excess of 4 million copies in the UK.

“Where Them Girls At” was released as the album’s first single on May 2, 2011. The track itself is a collaboration with Flo Rida and Nicki Minaj. The release of the single came earlier than planned after computer hackers managed to obtain an early acapella version of the song, featuring just the rappers’ vocals and added their own production to the song before leaking it. It debuted at number fourteen on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, becoming Guetta’s third top twenty hit in the United States. The song charted within the top ten in eighteen countries, and peaked at number one on the UK Dance Chart.
“Little Bad Girl” was released as the album’s second single on June 27, 2011. The track itself is a collaboration with Taio Cruz and Ludacris. The music video was released on July 18, 2011. The track entered the top ten in several countries, and peaked at number one in Venezuela. However, the United States was the only territory where the track was not successful, peaking only at #70. It did, however, fare well on the American Hot Dance club songs chart.
“Without You” was released as the album’s third single on October 14, 2011. The track itself, originally written and recorded by Taio Cruz, is a collaboration with Usher. The music video was filmed at the end of July 2011. The track was sent to mainstream radio in the United States on September 27, 2011. It was a success worldwide, and reached the top ten in the United States.
“Titanium” was released as the album’s fourth international single on December 9, 2011. The track itself is a collaboration with Sia. “Titanium” was initially released as a promotional single from the album, and successfully charted worldwide. It was later released as the album’s fifth single in the United States, officially impacting Top 40, Mainstream and Rhythmic radio on April 24, 2012.
“Turn Me On” was released in the U.S., officially impacting Top 40, Mainstream and Rhythmic radio on December 13, 2011. The track itself is a collaboration with Nicki Minaj. It was later released as the album’s fifth international single in January 2012. The music video was filmed in November 2011 by director Sanji. The video was released on January 31, 2012.
“I Can Only Imagine” was released as the album’s sixth single on May 2, 2012. The track itself is a collaboration with Chris Brown and Lil Wayne. The music video, directed by Colin Tilley, was filmed on May 29, 2012. The video was released on July 2, 2012. The track peaked at number one in Belgium, as well as achieving high success in Poland. The track has also charted in thirteen other territories. It was officially sent to American radio on August 7, 2012, where it peaked at #44.
Four songs were digitally released as promotional singles for the album: “Titanium” (which later became the official single) on August 8, 2011, “Lunar” (with Afrojack) on August 15, 2011, “Night of Your Life” (featuring Jennifer Hudson) on August 22, 2011 and “The Alphabeat” on March 26, 2012. The first three were released as part of the iTunes Store’s countdown to the album’s release.
It is noteworthy that all ten main singles from Nothing but the Beat, including the Guetta version Sweat, have peaked within the top-twenty of the UK Singles Chart and as of January 2015 have all together gone on to sell in excess of four million copies in the country.
At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted mean rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 56, based on 17 reviews, which indicates mixed or average reviews. David Jeffries wrote for AllMusic that “Nothing But the Beat offers the same experience as one of Guetta’s numerous remix sets, but declared that “something’s missing, something along the lines of ‘When Love Takes Over’.” In the same vein, Al Fox wrote for BBC Music that “Whether you could go so far as to call Guetta an auteur might be pushing it, but it’s a cohesive effort, if not quite a work of art.” Entertainment Weekly’s Mikael Wood praised the tracks “Night of Your Life” and “Titanium” but felt that “the album feels colder than its sweat factor suggests.” In an almost neutral review, Jon Dolan wrote for Rolling Stone that the album “shows how good he is at making Eurohouse’s thumping trounce and jet-engine synth whoosh feel like natural elements in the hip-hop, R&B and even rock continuum.
Ally Carnwath wrote a negative review for The Observer, rating it 1 out of 5 stars, writing that the album’s collaborations “struggle to impose any distinctive personality on the overall mood of relentless rictus-grin-inducing euphoria.” Tom Ewing from The Guardian criticized Guetta for making “tiring dancefloor fillers” and concluded that “Nothing But the Beat may sound like a one-man hit parade, but it also takes its title far too literally.” Eric Henderson wrote negatively for Slant Magazine that “His sound may be the most influential force in pop music today, but he’s paradoxically been artistically overshadowed by imitators and innovators alike, all of whom demonstrate a better understanding of power pop’s legacy (Lady Gaga’s “The Edge of Glory”), dance-floor dynamics (Rihanna’s “S&M”), and ridiculous self-awareness (LMFAO’s “Party Rock Anthem”).” Robert Christgau gave the album a B+ grade, writing that while he “only wish[es] it had a few ‘I Gotta Feeling’s”, it ultimately “offends club sophisticates no less than living-room discophobes.”

^[a] signifies co-producer or additional production by
The album’s re-release Nothing but the Beat 2.0 was preceded with the release of “She Wolf (Falling to Pieces),” on August 21, 2012. It is Guetta’s second collaboration with Sia following “Titanium”. A number of remixes of the track were first made available via Beatport on August 7, 2012, with contributors including Michael Calfan and Sandro Silva. The single was later released physically and digitally on August 24, 2012, in the United Kingdom and Germany. The track was officially sent to American radio on January 7, 2013. “Just One Last Time” was released as the album’s ninth overall single on November 15, 2012, and the second from the album’s re-release. The track itself is a collaboration with Taped Rai. The track was released in the United Kingdom on December 31, 2012, and became only the second single from the album, following on from I Can Only Imagine, which did not receive an official physical release. The music video was released on December 3, 2012, again directed by Colin Tilley. “Play Hard” featuring Akon and Ne-Yo has been remixed by Guetta, and this new version was released as the tenth and final single from “Nothing But The Beat”.
On April 11, 2012, Guetta has released his collaboration track with Nicky Romero “Metropolis” through Beatport as the first release of his new label Jack Back Records. A shortened edit of the song was later included in Nothing but the Beat 2.0. On October 19, a video for “Metropolis” was uploaded to YouTube and, as of April 2014, has over 10 million views. The video, a burn production directed by Mr. Brainwash, opens with a television with text on the screen that reads, “art cannot be criticized because every mistake is a new creation”, and contains scenes involving paint, graffiti, the breaking of objects, and Guetta and Romero DJing.
(*) denotes additional production
A feature-length biographical documentary about Guetta was released on 1 September 2011. Named after the album Nothing but the Beat, the documentary follows Guetta on tour around the world and behind the scenes of major concerts, featuring interviews with collaborative and associated artists, friends, colleagues, and his wife to chronicle his rise from underground house DJ to global superstar. It was produced alongside the energy drink brand Burn. Featured artists include will.i.am, Kelly Rowland, Snoop Dogg, Ludacris, Taio Cruz, and dance music legends Fatboy Slim, David Morales, and Pete Tong, plus new talent Afrojack and Avicii. The film received its official premiere at Paris’ largest operating movie theatre Le Grand Rex, where it played to over 2,000 fans and guests. Others involved in the production of the documentary included What A Music, Pardeep Sall (Trouble Makers Associates), filmmakers Partizan and innovation house Deviant Venture, and was released as a free podcast on iTunes.
*sales figures based on certification alone ^shipments figures based on certification alone xunspecified figures based on certification alone

Anarchismus in den Vereinigten Staaten

Der Anarchismus in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika entwickelte sich im Anschluss an die Unabhängigkeit des Landes und begann sich ab etwa 1850 auszuweiten. Dabei gab es zwei (zum Teil) stark entgegengesetzte Strömungen: die individualanarchistische und die sozialanarchistische Tradition.

Der individualistische Anarchismus basiert auf den gesellschaftlichen und weltanschaulichen Voraussetzungen des Landes selbst. Bezeichnet wird er auch als native, das heißt einheimischer Anarchismus. Sein Merkmal ist der ausgeprägte individuelle Freiheitsgedanke. Nach der individualanarchistischen Tradition sei die beste Regierung die, die gar nicht regiert, was aus der amerikanischen Unabhängigkeitserklärung (Verfasser: Thomas Jefferson) abgeleitet ist, die besagt: die beste Regierung ist jene, die am wenigsten regiert. C.L. James und Rudolf Rocker vertraten die Meinung, dass der amerikanische Anarchismus viel älter sei als der europäische, demnach sei der Anarchismus keine ausländische Besonderheit.
Ein bekannter Vertreter des Individualanarchismus war Josiah Warren. Dieser begann sich im Jahr 1825 für soziale Reformen zu engagieren und war für gerechte Entlohnung. Durch ihn entwickelte sich eine starke Kommunenbewegung (zum Beispiel Oneida, 1848–1881) in den Vereinigten Staaten. Diese Kommunen waren meist christlich geprägt und waren der stärkste Widerstand gegen staatliche Intervention. Die Kommunenbewegung war größtenteils ländlich beziehungsweise agrarisch orientiert und hatte einen konservativen Charakter. Einige Individualanarchisten hatten eine bewusste Distanz zum Industrialisierungsprozess eingenommen.
Warren glaubte an die Prinzipien sozialer Gerechtigkeit und gegenseitiger Hilfe, ohne dass ein organisatorischer Rahmen die individuelle Freiheit einschränken dürfe. Die von Warren gegründeten Kommunen lehnten ein Kollektivleben ab: Individuen beziehungsweise einzelne Familien lebten relativ zurückgezogen und die sozialen Aktivitäten waren auf notwendige Gemeinschaftsarbeiten zum Erhalt der Kommune reduziert. Zudem gab es kaum Engagement für soziale Gerechtigkeit, das über die Kommune hinausging. Viele für Warrens Politik charakteristischen Züge bestimmten die Schwerpunkte der gesamten Epoche des amerikanischen Individualistischen Anarchismus: Pazifismus, Gleichberechtigung der Geschlechter, sexuelle Freiheit, Ablehnung bestehender Steuersysteme und Pragmatismus. Warren starb 1874, sein Einfluss war groß, auch auf den literarischen Kreis (zum Beispiel Henry David Thoreau). Warrens Projekt wurde von Benjamin Tucker abgeschlossen, der als letzter großer Vertreter gilt.
Im 19. Jahrhundert rückte in den Vereinigten Staaten die Soziale Frage besonders in den Industriezentren ins Zentrum. Die Arbeiterschaft bestand großteils aus Immigranten, vor allem aus Osteuropa, Deutschland und Italien. Aus ihnen bestand auch der größte Teil der anarchistischen Kreise der Arbeiterschaft, deshalb wird der Sozialanarchismus auch als ausländischer Anarchismus bezeichnet. Es ging beim Gegensatz zwischen Individual- und Sozialanarchismus um die Gewaltfrage angesichts des expliziten und praktizierten Pazifismus der Individualanarchisten bei gleichzeitiger Teilnahme von Sozialanarchisten an vorderster Front der Klassenkämpfe des 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhunderts. Es bestand eine Militanz der radikalen anarchistischen Arbeiterbewegung. Johann Most war ein wichtiger Akteur der anarchistischen Bewegung, er gründete die deutschsprachige anarchistische Zeitschrift Freiheit in den Vereinigten Staaten. Primäres Zentrum der Arbeiteragitation war Chicago mit dem Kampf um die Einführung des Acht-Stunden-Tags, Chicago stellte beim Kongress der anarchistischen Working People’s Association in Pittsburgh die Hälfte der 6000 Teilnehmer. Chicago war ein bevorzugtes Ziel bei Immigranten, zu denen hauptsächlich wegen der Bismarckschen Sozialistengesetze zahlreiche deutsche Sozialisten zählten. Im Mai 1886 eskalierten zuerst friedlich gebliebene Streiks in die Haymarket-Affäre.
Zu den für Anarchisten in dieser Zeitspanne erwähnenswerten Ereignissen/Protagonisten zählen:
Erst durch die Studentenproteste und die Bewegung gegen den Vietnamkrieg in den 1960er Jahren kam dem Anarchismus wieder verstärkt Bedeutung zu. Allerdings eher im Sinne einer allgemeinen „anarchistischen Stimmung“ als in Form expliziter anarchistischer Politik. Der Einfluss der radikalen Organisationen war eher gering (zum Beispiel Black Panther Party). Gruppen, deren Aktivismus deutlich anarchistische Züge trug, waren Point Black in San Francisco und Black Mask in New York. Der wichtigste Sprecher des „Neuen Anarchismus“ war der Autor Murray Bookchin, der durch seinen Artikel Listen,Marxist! bekannt wurde.
Nach den Anti-WTO-Protesten in Seattle 1999 entstand der sogenannte „Neue Anarchismus“. Durch die Anti-WTO-Proteste in Seattle Ende 1999 entwickelte sich der Anarchismus wieder zu einer breiten politischen Bewegung in den Vereinigten Staaten.
1989 wurde das Love and Rage Network offiziell gegründet. Es transformierte sich später in die Love and Rage Revolutionary Anarchist Federation, spaltete sich aber 1998 und löste sich auf. 2000 startete die auf plattformistischen Ideen basierende North Eastern Federation of Anarchist Communists (NEFAC). Diese Föderation war vor allem im Nordosten Nordamerikas aktiv und spaltete sich 2008 in zwei Gruppen: die Union Communiste Libertaire bestand hauptsächlich aus Mitglieder in Québec und Mitglieder der Vereinigten Staaten, die zunächst den Namen NEFAC weiterführten und sich 2011 in Common Struggle umbenannten. Sie wurden später Mitglied der Black Rose Anarchist Federation, die weit verstreute Ortsgruppen in den Vereinigten Staaten hat. Black Rose kann nicht als plattformistische Organisation bezeichnet werden, steht aber teilweise dem Especifismo nah, einer dem Plattformismus ähnlichen Strömung in Südamerika.

Ritter Sport

modifier – voir wikidata
Ritter Sport (Alfred Ritter GmbH & Co. KG) est un fabricant allemand de chocolat.
En 1912, Alfred et Clara Ritter fondent une entreprise de chocolat et de confiserie Alfred Ritter Cannstat, dans le Bade-Wurtemberg, en Allemagne. En 1919, l’entreprise déménage à Bad Cannstatt et lance sur le marché sa propre marque de chocolat : Alrika. L’entreprise compte alors une quarantaine d’employés. En 1930, l’entreprise redéménage et s’installe à Waldenbuch. En 1932 naît la fameuse tablette de chocolat carrée de 100 g, imaginée par Clara Ritter.
En raison de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, la production ralentit en 1939, puis s’arrête totalement en 1940. L’entreprise ne refonctionnera qu’en 1946, et reprendra toute sa gamme de production en 1950. En 1952, Alfred Otto Ritter, le fils d’Alfred Ritter, reprend l’entreprise après le décès de celui-ci.
En 1954, la firme, qui compte déjà plus de 100 employés, atteint une production quotidienne de 4 tonnes de chocolat en tablettes. En 1959, c’est Clara Ritter qui décède à l’âge de 82 ans.
En 1970, grâce à une forte campagne télévisée, Ritter Sport s’établit dans toute l’Allemagne. Le slogan Quadratisch. Praktisch. Gut. (Carré. Pratique. Bon.) apparaît. En 1972, l’entreprise atteint un chiffre d’affaires de 100 millions de Deutsche Mark. En 1974, une particularité de la marque est inventée par Alfred Otto Ritter : à chaque variété de chocolat correspond une couleur différente de l’emballage des tablettes. En 1982, les mini tablettes Ritter Sport sont introduites sur le marché. En 1987, l’entreprise atteint un chiffre d’affaires de 400 millions de Deutsche Mark et compte 710 employés. En 1998, la firme atteint les 507 millions de Deutsche Mark de chiffre d’affaires.
En 2001 est ouvert le musée du chocolat. Les visiteurs peuvent s’y informer sur la fabrication du chocolat ainsi que sur l’histoire de la maison Ritter Sport.
Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

1994 Calder Cup playoffs

The 1994 Calder Cup playoffs of the American Hockey League began on April 13, 1994. The twelve teams that qualified, four from each division, played best-of-seven series for division semifinals and division finals. The highest remaining seed received a bye for the third round while the other two remaining teams played a best-of-3 series series, with the winner advancing to play the bye-team in a best-of-seven series for the Calder Cup. The Calder Cup Final ended on May 29, 1994 with the Portland Pirates defeating the Moncton Hawks four games to one to win the first Calder Cup in team history. Portland’s Olaf Kolzig won the Jack A. Butterfield Trophy as AHL playoff MVP.
Portland’s Mike Boback tied an AHL playoff record for points in a single playoff game by scoring 7 points (3 goals, 4 assists) in game 5 of the Northern division semifinal against the Albany River Rats.

After the 1993-94 AHL regular season, 12 teams qualified for the playoffs. The top four teams from each division qualified for the playoffs. The St. John’s Maple Leafs finished the regular season with the best overall record.
In each round the team that earned more points during the regular season receives home ice advantage, meaning they receive the “extra” game on home-ice if the series reaches the maximum number of games. For the Semifinal round, the team that earned the most points during the regular season out of the three remaining teams receives a bye directly to the Calder Cup Final. There is no set series format due to arena scheduling conflicts and travel considerations.

The deciding game was the last for the sixty-year-old Springfield Indians franchise, which moved to Worcester, Massachusetts, in the offseason to become the Worcester IceCats.