Panteno

San Panteno (Sicilia, ?-Alejandría, h. 216). Filósofo, y Padre de la Iglesia. Considerado santo por las Iglesias católica y copta.
Son pocos e inseguros los datos relacionados con su vida y actividad chandal kelme. Algunos autores suponen que nació en la isla de Sicilia; se basan generalmente en la alusión del historiador Eusebio de Cesarea a la «abeja siciliana» (Historia Eclesiástica, V,II,2,), pensando que Clemente de Alejandría, discípulo de Panteno, se refiere a él, aunque sin nombrarlo expresamente, en Stromata (I,II,2). Mas no es segura, ni verosímil, según otros autores, la identificación de Panteno con la referida «abeja sícula».
Antes de su conversión al cristianismo era profesional de la filosofía en Alejandría. Aunque carecemos de escritos personales de Panteno, según Filipo de Sida, su punto de partida habría sido la doctrina pitagórica. Pero esta opinión no se admite comúnmente, y la generalidad de los autores, basados en citas de contemporáneos de Panteno aunque no del todo contundentes, piensan que su filosofía de origen habría sido la estoica. El motivo de su conversión debió ser el testimonio edificante de los cristianos de su época, aunque por su preparación teórica asimiló bien el contenido doctrinal cristiano, convirtiéndose en maestro excepcional de la nueva religión por él abrazada. En tiempos del emperador Cómodo (180-192) se hallaba al frente de la Escuela catequística de Alejandría, siendo el primer director conocido de la misma, y quien le dio su impronta característica y su singular organización (Eusebio, Hist. Ecl kelme canarinha. V, 10).
Su enseñanza fue sobre todo -por no decir exclusivamente- oral, y entre los auditores de sus lecciones sobre la Sagrada Escritura se cuentan el obispo de Capadocia Alejandro y sobre todo Clemente de Alejandría, sucesor suyo en la dirección y primer maestro alejandrino de quien se conservan obras escritas. Fue misionero y evangelizador de la India (según algunos autores fue a la Arabia del Sur o a Etiopía), donde encontró, según parece, el Evangelio original de san Mateo (en hebreo-arameo). Se ignora la fecha exacta de su muerte, pero se le supone fallecido en 216.
La Iglesia católica lo cataloga entre el número de los santos, y celebra su festividad el 7 de julio, y la Iglesia copta el 22 de junio kelme futsal.
Pronto se forjaron dos corrientes de opinión sobre su gestión al frente de la escuela alejandrina. Unos lo presentan como jefe de la escuela ropa deportiva kelme, como filósofo eminente y autor de numerosos libros que -de ser cierta la hipótesis- se habrían perdido en su totalidad. Otros recuerdan en él la figura de un evangelizador (misionero), exegeta e intérprete de las Sagradas Escrituras, y maestro de la enseñanza oral.
El primer grupo de opinión no parece estar en lo cierto: por los indicios, Panteno debió de ser uno de aquellos antiguos y prestigiosos presbíteros transmisores de la tradición oral que se remonta hasta los mismos Apóstoles: según los testimonios más antiguos (cfr. Eclogae propheticae, 27,7), estos presbíteros no solían dejar escritos ni sus sermones homiléticos, ni sus conversaciones testimoniales. Este criterio habría que aplicarlo al caso de Panteno. Ello, no obstante, algunos autores, Eusebio entre otros (Hisi. Ecl. V,10,4; cfr. Ecl. proph. 56,2), le han atribuido la composición de algunos escritos, lo que puede tal vez explicarse porque determinadas tradiciones, más o menos auténticamente atribuidas a Panteno, parece ser que fueron publicadas por algunos de sus discípulos o tal vez por otros seguidores posteriores de la misma escuela alejandrina. Sea lo que fuere, puede afirmarse hoy con bastante seguridad que carece de toda base la hipótesis que le atribuye la Epístola a Diogneto.
Careciendo de escritos auténticos de Panteno y dada la costumbre de los escritos antiguos de omitir citas y fuentes de sus obras, resulta muy difícil determinar el influjo de la obra de P. -si es que realmente existió, y de su doctrina en los autores posteriores y particularmente en su discípulo Clemente de Alejandría. Dentro de las conjeturas se supone que Panteno habría transmitido algunas tradiciones locales palestinenses, tal vez con cierta influencia judeo-gnóstica, a Clemente, y que Clemente a su vez habría transmitido muchas tradiciones interpretativas y exegéticas propias de su maestro Panteno bajo la cita del presbítero en sus Hypothyposeis, obra perdida en su mayor parte.
Menos aventurado resulta señalar un influjo cierto de Panteno en la línea general de orientación que distingue a la famosa escuela alejandrina. En primer lugar, su tendencia idealista, no exenta de cierto misticismo, que tuvo su expresión exegética en la llamada interpretación alegórica de la Biblia, procedimiento que se prestaba a exageraciones, pero que, llevado con un sano equilibrio, hay que reconocer que dio lugar a aportaciones muy interesantes. Otros rasgos típicos de la escuela es su noble esfuerzo por encontrar, en lo posible, un modo de explicar los dogmas cristianos con teorías filosóficas griegas; esta actitud conciliadora, en sí fecunda, llevó, no obstante, a algunos representantes de esta escuela a proponer explicaciones poco acertadas. A despecho de las exageraciones y extremismos en una y otra característica de la escuela -idealismo, armonización de filosofía pagana y cristianismo- ambas actitudes son aprovechables y de signo positivo. La tradición posterior, totalmente acorde en considerar a Panteno como primer padre «reconocido» de la escuela de Alejandría, le atribuye implícitamente, siquiera sea en forma embrionaria, la delineación de estos dos rasgos típicos.

Cotyledon velutina

Cotyledon velutina
Cotyledon velutina ist eine Pflanzenart der Gattung Cotyledon in der Familie der Dickblattgewächse (Crassulaceae) mcm tasche.

Cotyledon velutina wächst als aufrechter

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, sukkulenter Strauch mit einer Wuchshöhe von bis zu 300 Zentimetern. Die von der Basis aus verholzenden Triebe besitzen eine purpurbraune und an älteren Pflanzen abblätternde Borke. Sie erreichen einen Durchmesser von bis zu 45 Millimeter

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. Die grünen oder glauken und verkehrt lanzettlichen, flachen bis oben konkaven Laubblätter sind behaart oder kahl und werden 5 bis 13,5 Zentimeter lang und 2 bis 8 Zentimeter breit. Die Basis der Blätter ist keilförmig und geöhrt ausgebildet, der graugrüne, scharfe Rand der Blätter geht in den Stiel über und läuft an ihm herab. Die Spitze der Blätter ist stumpf und besitzt aufgesetzte Spitzchen.
Der bis 60 Zentimeter hohe Blütenstand besteht ist aus 3 bis 5 Dichasien mit jeweils 5 bis 10 rötlich, gelben und kahlen Einzelblüten. Der Blütenstandstiel hat einen Durchmesser von 3 bis 4 Millimeter. Die Blütenkrone ist röhrig ausgebildet. Die zylindrische Röhre ist gelblich und bis 17 Millimeter lang. Die Kronzipfel sind ausgebreitet bis zurückgebogenen. Die Staubblätter ragen bis 7 Millimeter heraus. Die Staubbeutel sind gelb gefärbt und werden 2,5 Millimeter im Durchmesser. Die quer länglichen Nektarschüppchen sind gelb und 0,6 bis 1,0 Millimeter groß.
Cotyledon velutina ist in den südafrikanischen Provinzen Ostkap und im südlichen KwaZulu-Natal in subtropischen Dickichten verbreitet.
Die Erstbeschreibung als Cotyledon velutina durch Joseph Dalton Hooker wurde 1868 veröffentlicht.
Synonyme sind Cotyledon beckeri Schönland & Baker f. (1902), Cotyledon velutina var. beckeri (Schönland & Baker f.) (Schönland) (1915) und Cotyledon mollis Schönland (1915).

Wakefield High School (Arlington County, Virginia)

http://www.apsva.us/wakefield SGA Website
Wakefield High School is one of three public high schools located in Arlington, Virginia, closely bordering Alexandria. There were 120 teachers and 1435 students as of 2012.
Wakefield’s athletes are called the “Warriors” and wear the colors kelly green, white, and black. The school participates in the Virginia High School League. The Warriors are represented by an image of a knight holding a sword, which was preceded by an Indian head until 2003.

The school opened for the second time for the 1952–1953 school year. Under its current principal Christian Willmore, it is administered by the Arlington Public Schools.
As of 2005–2012 the school has 1435 students and 120 teachers covering grades 9-12.
During the celebration of the school’s 50th anniversary in 2003, induction to the school’s Hall of Fame began

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. Additional inductions are made in odd numbered years.
In 2007, the county’s school board began the planning process for modernization or replacement of the Wakefield building. Wakefield will be the third of the county’s three high schools to receive a new building, following Washington-Lee (new academic wing completed January 2008, full completion expected late 2009) and Yorktown (construction contemplated following a bond referendum in November 2008). The order of construction of the three schools corresponds to the age of the three existing buildings. If construction on the new building continues as planned, the new Wakefield High School will open late summer, 2013.
Wakefield is now a newly remodeled high school. http://www.arlnow.com/2013/08/14/photos-new-wakefield-high-school/
The demographic breakdown of the 2012–2013 school year is as follows:
As of 2006–2007, 222 students receive ESL support.
Most Wakefield students reside in South Arlington, the portion of the county below Arlington Boulevard (US 50). This part of the county is home to many recent immigrants to the United States, and the residential areas are some of the most culturally diverse in the nation.The high school attendance boundaries are not fixed and change about once every decade

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. Historically, the attendance area for Wakefield has extended as far north as the Williamsburg area of Arlington near Mclean, and has at times included other parts of North Arlington near Ballston and Clarendon.
In 2003, Washingtonian Magazine ranked Wakefield as the 17th most diverse high school out of all 128 public and private high schools in the DC metropolitan area.
Homecoming is an honored tradition at Wakefield. “Spirit Week” is also practiced. Each of the five days has a different theme, and the students and faculty dress accordingly. The week then concludes with a pep rally, parade, football game, and formal dance.
Heritage Week is an important week at Wakefield. This week is just like homecoming, in which each day has a different theme. Students are to dress up in cultural attire and bring in cultural foods on the assigned days. Students are also allowed to bring in cultural music that is played during the school day. During the week, each third period is to design their classroom door to represent the cultural diversity within the classroom and within the school. The most well decorated door on each floor wins a prize. At the end of the week, an assembly is put on by students and teachers performing acts related to their heritages.
After graduation, graduates and guests are to participate in the Boat Party and Breakfast. Students are bussed to the Potomac Wharf and board the Spirit of the Potomac and take a three-hour boat ride. Usually, the main floor is for dancing and dining, the second floor is designed as a mock casino, and the upper deck is for outdoor lounging. At the end of the trip, the students are bussed back to Wakefield and are provided breakfast by parents of other students and participate in other activities.
Wakefield offers many opportunities for students to participate in various clubs and activities to support their academics and challenge them to learn and grow outside the classroom. Such activities include:
Wakefield’s school-wide newspaper is known as The Chieftain. It is a course in journalism offered by the school and is produced solely by students. Stories covered include local and international news, school events, performing arts, athletic development, and the ever popular “Kiss-O-Gram”(student-to-student messages regarding Valentine’s Day).
Starstone was the title of the Wakefield yearbook until 2003 (the 50th anniversary). Since then, the yearbook is retitled each year.
Wakefield sponsors a team of students to participate in the locally televised quiz show, It’s Academic. The team’s faculty advisor is Nathan Batchelder. The Warriors have been sending the team to Scholastic Bowl tournaments (in addition to It’s Academic) and have come home with multiple National District titles.
In the spring, the team hosts a tournament, Brain Brawl, similar to the Saturday morning program for the other students and faculty of the school. They are to devise teams of 3 students and 1 faculty member of choice. Faculty most known to participate include Mr. Alfred Reid and Mr. Alan Beitler. It’s Academic alumni are also known to come back and take part by reading questions or keeping scores. On the day of the tournament, teams are divided into two brackets, and play through an elimination tournament. The final two teams then play head-to-head in a closed-circuit televised event broadcast to the whole school. The winning team usually goes home with small trophies, as do selected players of superlative awards.
Games are usually played in four rounds: toss-up round, individual team round, faculty only round, and students only round. Questions include standard academic trivia, mathematic stumps, pop culture, and running jokes involving school faculty.
For the freshman of the school, there is a smaller tournament—also headed by the It’s Academic team—known as the “Baby Brawl” with three teams representing each House.
Wakefield encourages all interested students to take Advanced Placement courses, favoring “preparedness” over intelligence and finesse. The “AP Network”, which began as an Exemplary Project approved by the Arlington County School Board in the spring of 2004, is rooted in this belief.
Since the Network’s inception, the faculty and staff of Wakefield have been “networking” and creating numerous academic programs to introduce pre-AP and AP courses. Among these programs are the Foundations Pre-AP Program, the Pre-AP Bridge Program, the AP Summer Bridge Program for upperclassmen, and the AP Study Seminar.
In the spring of 2006, Wakefield was granted the Inspiration Award by the College Board, reflecting the inception of the AP Network and as one of the country’s Most Improved High Schools. Only three high schools are granted this honor every year. Along with Wakefield in 2006 was John Tyler High School of Tyler, Texas and Hobbs High School of Hobbs, New Mexico.
Wakefield is the only school in Arlington that requires students to complete a Senior Project as a requirement for graduation. As a junior, each student is to select a topic of interest in which he/she is to have approved. Students may begin research during the summer before senior year. However, all papers must be written and verified during the academic year. At the start of the seniors’ academic year, students select a date in which they are to present his/her project giving them a time-frame in which papers are to be submitted. During the year, the student then decides on a panel (composed of one pre-determined faculty member, one expert in the field

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, one person from the community, and another fellow senior) who will grade the project. Those who do not receive a “pass” or higher will report to Summer Institute to complete the missing requirements.
Wakefield administers the SOL tests for the state of Virginia.
Source: GreatSchools.com
Wakefield offers the PSAT free to students in grades 10 and 11. An SAT preparatory course is offered, as well as the actual examination. In 2007 the average SAT score was a 959 (471 in Reading; 488 in Math).
The Spanish Immersion program allows students to continue taking challenging courses involving the Spanish language. In the past, students have had part of the entire curriculum in Spanish. Currently, the high school level of Spanish Immersion allows students to develop their ability to both read, speak, and think in courses including Spanish Literature and AP Spanish. Starting in 2006, immersion students are privileged to study abroad in universities of various Spanish speaking countries.
Wakefield also offers French, German, Latin, Arabic, Chinese, and Italian.
Jina Davidson heads the school’s Fine Arts Department and teaches photography and art history. Margot Dunn joined the Fine Arts faculty in 2008 and teaches drawing, painting, ceramics, crafts, and AP art. Davidson and Dunn encourage students to participate in visual art competitions, and many have come back with high honors and awards.
Wakefield has also spawned a generation of students in the performing arts. In the winter of 2004, Wakefield introduced its newly renovated auditorium, now called the “Center of Performing Arts”. This houses all performing arts including instrumental, choral, and theatrical. Find out about upcoming shows, events, rehearsal schedules and more at wakefieldtheaterarts.webs.com/.(official theater dept. website)
Wakefield’s athletic department competes through the Virginia High School League. It is headed by Ms. Noel Deskins and Mr. Bob Strauss. The teams wear the colors kelly green, white, and black. The athletic website is www.wakefieldathletics.org
Wakefield High School owns and manages its own swimming pool. During the week, it is used for physical education for the students of Wakefield and for students of neighboring middle and elementary schools. Other times, it is used publicly for the community at large. The community does not have a team to represent the public pool, but is represented by the Warriors’ swim and dive team.
Starting in 2002, Arlington County spent well over $700,000 on the implant and maintenance of a new Synthetic Turf Field in various athletic fields and stadiums. In 2004, Wakefield’s outdoor stadium was the first of the three Arlington high schools with this change

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. Washington-Lee High School and Yorktown High School had their fields implanted in 2005 and 2006, respectively

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In 2004, Wakefield completed the construction of the girls’ softball field. This was the first time the two sports, softball and baseball, were segregated in the history of Warrior athletics.
Stadium upgrades are scheduled to begin in April 2013. Stadium improvements will include the replacement of bleachers on both sides and a new press box. The press box will include heating, air conditioning, and filming platform for recording games. Stadium improvements are scheduled to be completed by July 2013.
During a high school tour early in their career the Backstreet Boys once performed in an assembly.
On the first day of the 2009-2010 school year, Wakefield hosted President Barack Obama who addressed the students in the “Back to School Speech”. This speech was broadcast live in schools across the United States. On March 7, 2011, President Barack Obama revisited the school, this time with the Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard and the United States Secretary of Education Arne Duncan. The president and prime minister talked to a class of juniors in an AP US History class.
Coordinates: 38°50′52″N 77°06′36″W / 38.847863°N 77.110119°W / 38.847863; -77.110119

Minor Consiglio

Le Minor Consiglio (« Petit Conseil ») appelé également Consiglio Ducale (« Conseil ducal ») ou Consiglio dei Sei (« Conseil des six ») était un organe de la République de Venise au Moyen Âge.
Instauré en 1175

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, il comprenait six membres, les Conseillers ducaux, un par Sestiere qui secondait le Doge.
Le conseil était renouvelé par moitié et chacun des conseillers restait en fonctions 12 mois le coq sportif chaussures, plus tard porté à 16 mois. Ceux-ci ne pouvaient-être rééligibles avant deux ans.
Durant ce conseil, le Doge pouvait ouvrir la correspondance personnelle, afin d’en discuter en audience et seulement en présence d’au moins 4 conseillers.
La fonction principale de ce Conseil était celle de modérer l’autorité du Doge

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, de l’assister et de le conseiller. Pendant les vacances ducales

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, le gouvernement se concentrait dans ses mains; il gérait les affaires courantes et il présidait aux opérations pour la nomination du nouveau Doge, tandis qu’un des Conseillers (pas toujours le plus âgé) assumait les fonctions de Vice-Doge. Il faisait partie intégrante de la Seigneurie de Venise.
Le Minor Consiglio pouvait également convoquer le Maggior Consiglio lorsqu’il l’estimait opportun (même un seul Conseiller le pouvait).
Ce Conseil suivait l’administration de la ville, en surveillant l’activité des officiers publics et en organisant l’élection des nouveaux. Il résolvait les conflits de compétence qui se faisaient jour entre organes aussi bien administratifs que judiciaires, et indiquait, en cas de doute, quel tribunal fut compétent, avant même qu’un conflit se manifestât.
Il exerça une compétence limitée en matière financière : sa faculté de disposer de l’argent public jusqu’à 10 livres d’or fut abolie en 1441, tandis qu’en 1446, ce Conseil dut renoncer à celle d’interpréter la loi.

Encre de Chine

L’encre de Chine est une encre noire utilisée pour l’écriture, le dessin et la peinture au lavis. Réputée venir d’Orient, Chine ou Inde, elle associe un pigment noir de carbone et un liant aqueux.
L’encre de Chine proprement dite se présente sous forme de bâtons à frotter sur une pierre dans de l’eau. Elle est indélébile et d’aspect brillant après séchage. Sa composition varie (VTT). À l’époque moderne, le terme « encre de Chine » (indian ink en anglais) désigne couramment une variété plus grande encore de préparations liquides, qui partagent plus ou moins ses qualités essentielles (PRV). Ces encres noires servent notamment en bande dessinée pour l’encrage des dessins au crayon, et autrefois en dessin technique. Dans ces domaines, elle régresse avec la généralisation du dessin assisté par ordinateur.

Le pigment de l’encre de Chine est le noir de fumée. Elle est légèrement brune (VTT), comme on le constate avec de fortes dilutions. Certaines fabrications, aussi bien anciennes que modernes, y ajoutent des colorants pour en modifier la nuance (PRV). Les variétés indiennes peuvent contenir des oxydes métalliques, celles fabriquées en Égypte du charbon de bois (VTT).
Le bâton d’encre est un des quatre trésors du lettré (avec le pinceau, le papier de riz et la pierre à encre), ustensiles traditionnels de la calligraphie et la peinture chinoise, coréenne et japonaise.
Le liant originel de l’encre de Chine proprement dite, en bâton, est une colle de protéine, colle de peau ou colle de poisson (VTT, PRV). À partir du XVIIe siècle, la présence de gomme laque solubilisée par une solution amoniacale donne à l’encre une fois sèche un aspect brillant, et une consistance dure et cassante qui permet, sur certains supports, le grattage. L’encre de Chine en couche épaisse peut se craqueler et des écailles tomber, laissant des lacunes (VTT). Avec d’autres liants, ou en cas de forte dilution, l’encre se dilue encore dans l’eau après séchage.
Les sucs végétaux ajoutés au liant ont une action tanante et rendent l’encre indélébile. D’autres additifs, comme le fiel, rendent l’encre

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, une fois mélangée à l’eau, plus ou moins mouillante, d’autres la rendent plus ou moins onctueuse, atténuent son odeur, évitent, comme le clou de girofle, sa dégradation par des bactéries (VTT).
Les liants d’encres d’autres provenances peuvent contenir des sucres et de la gomme arabique (VTT).
La préparation de l’encre, qui précède l’exécution d’une calligraphie ou d’une peinture de ce style, consiste à moudre le bâton d’encre sur la pierre à encre, avec de l’eau. La proportion d’encre et d’eau détermine l’intensité de l’encre, et permet d’aménager des contrastes ; notamment dans la peinture de paysages.
Les bâtons sont décorés avec des caractères ou des figures de couleur rouge, bleu, vert ou or.
Au Japon, l’encre en bâtons s’appelle sumi.
Les encres au noir de carbone (Colour Index PBk7) encrassent les plume à écrire ou à dessiner qu’on utilise en Europe, mais non en Chine, obligeant à les nettoyer fréquemment. L’encre métallo-gallique n’a pas cet inconvénient, et a dominé l’usage en Occident. Ceux qui recherchaient une encre plus noire utilisaient, souvent avec le pinceau ou le calame, l’encre dite « de Chine » importée depuis le Moyen-âge. Avec les instruments métalliques, comme le tire-ligne, cette encre « de Chine » offre encore l’avantage de ne pas être corrosive, alors que l’encre métallo-gallique oblige à nettoyer l’instrument. L’invention des pigments synthétiques à la fin du XIXe siècle a multiplié les options, et mis quelque confusion dans les dénominations commerciales des encres prêtes à l’emploi.
La forme liquide impose des additifs émulsifiants ou conservateurs différents de la forme en bâtons.Les fabricants proposent un liquide adapté aux instruments. Le stylo-plume, particulièrement à pointe tubulaire, comme le stylo-pinceau, s’encrasse plus facilement que les pinceaux. Une encre indélébile rendrait le nettoyage de l’instruments beaucoup plus difficile. Ils emploient des encres à formule adaptée, souvent conditionnée en cartouches.
Les encres noires liquides vendues sous le nom d’encre de Chine peuvent avoir des compositions arbitraires (PRV). Les pigments peuvent être synthétiques (noir d’aniline, naphtol). Des fabricants utilisent des noirs de carbone industriels, dont les caractéristiques sont mieux contrôlés que celles des noirs de fumée produits artisanalement
Les encres peuvent contenir divers produits chimiques assurant leur caractéristiques physiques, comme le diéthylène glycol.
Si l’encre de Chine (ch. trad. : 墨 ; py : mò ; jap. : 墨 ; ko. : 먹) est très vraisemblablement originaire de ce pays, et bien que son principe de fabrication soit à peu près stable, il a existé une variété infinie d’« encres de Chine » différentes selon les lieux et les époques. Selon certains, ce type d’encre serait apparu en Inde avant d’avoir été repris par les Chinois. Il n’existe pas d’« encre de Chine » unique et de formule fixe, et toutes les encres noires ne sont pas « de Chine », d’autant que la composition des encres n’est jamais indiquée sur les emballages. Pour les anglophones l’encre de Chine est l’« encre indienne » : India Ink, et en néerlandais l’« encre indienne orientale » : Oost-Indische Inkt. On ne connaît pas avec une grande précision les dates d’apparition des divers types d’encre.
Le caractère chinois de l’encre, 墨, mò, « encre » est une combinaison de deux caractères, 黑, hēi, « noir ») en haut et 土, tǔ, « terre » en bas. On retrouve des objets peints à l’encre de Chine 4000 ou 5000 av

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. J.-C.
Les premières encres, tant en Chine et en Orient en général, qu’au Proche et Moyen-Orient, puis en Europe, sont toutes à base de noir de fumée, sans liant. L’eau porte les particules de suie dans les insterstices du support, papyrus, papier ou parchemin. Une fois sèche, l’inscription résiste à l’abrasion. On trouve ensuite des encres liées à la colle protéinique, colle de peau, de corne ou de poisson. À partir du XVIIe siècle, l’encre de Chine peut être liée par de la gomme laque. L’encre de Chine se distingue des encres au plomb ou à base d’oxydes métalliques couramment utilisées en Occident. L’encre au fer apparaît progressivement à partir du IXe siècle chez les Arabes, puis en Occident, avec ses ingrédients de base : noix de galle, sulfate de fer ou de cuivre : ce sera la seule à permettre l’usage des plumes d’oiseau pour l’écriture, tandis qu’en Orient la tradition de l’encre au noir de fumée se perpétue avec l’usage du pinceau.
C’est sous la dynastie des Song (960-1278) qu’on commença à faire l’encre avec du camphre et du musc.
Le noir de fumée : Chaque région et chaque fabricant eut, au fil des époques, ses secrets pour fabriquer le noir de fumée : poudre de riz parfumée infusée dans une décoction de l’ hibiscus mutabilis, huile de pétrole de lampe, écorce de grenadier délayée dans du vinaigre, graines de chou et de haricot, huile de vernicia montana, de bignonia tomentosa (Huile de Tong) de Jesamum orientale et selon une légende, de la corne de rhinocéros ; le bois de sapin était la manière la plus répandue de préparer le « noir de fumée », avec la base du tronc de pin (pinus sylvestris) mêlé au suc de l’écorce de l’arbre Kin (l’huile de Gergélin), et de la colle animale pour la lier, fut remplacé ensuite par les graines de chanvre et les huiles de dryandra cordata et Gleditsia sinensis. L’encre Impériale dite Yu me était faite d’un noir de fumée très raffiné, fait de fumée d’huiles, et parfumée ensuite au musc. Jean-Baptiste Du Halde donne une recette de l’encre de chine avec « des plantes Hu hlang et Kan sung, des gousses appelées Tchu-ya-tsuo-ko, et du suc de gingembre », de la colle de bœuf (Nieou Kiao). Les recettes étaient gardées secrètes. On pouvait tremper la mèche de la lampe dans le suc de la plante thsetsao (Cersis siliquostrum) et cela donnait un beau reflet rouge à l’encre exposée au soleil sur du papier.
Recettes du Ki-kong-mo-fa et de Du Halde :
« On prend : du noir de fumée de sapin, 76 grammes;on y ajoute une petite quantité de clous de girofle, de musc et de vernis de laque sec. On forme ensuite un bâton, à l’aide de la colle, qu’on expose à un feu bien vif pour la sécher. Un mois après, l’encre peut être employée. Si on introduit dans le noir de fumée une petite quantité de langue de bœuf séchée, on donne à l’encre une couleur violette; l’écorce de poivrier lui donne une teinte bleue. »
«  1 °. dix onces de noir de fumée, ou de suye tirée des pins. Des plantes Ho hiang, et Kan Jung. On y joint du suc de gingembre. Des gousses ou siliques, nommées Tchu hia tfao kp. On fait d’abord bouillir dans de l’eau ces quatre derniers ingrédients ; lorsque par la cuisson la vertu des végétaux en aura été tirée, on jette le marc. Cette liqueur déjà épaissie, étant rassise et clarifiée, se remet sur le feu pour lui donner la consistance d’une pâte, sur le poids de dix onces de cette mixtion, on dissout quatre onces de la colle nommée O kiao, où l’on aura incorpore trois feuilles d’or et deux d’argent. Quand tout est ainsi préparé, on y mêle les dix onces de noir de fumée, afin d’en former un corps. Cette composition doit être longtemps battue’ avec l’espatule. Enfin, on la jette dans des moules, pour en former des tablettes. Peu après il faut enterrer l’encre dans un long espace plein de cendres froides où elle restera ensevelie cinq jours durant le printemps ; trois jours, si c’est en été ; sept jours en automne ; dix en hiver ; c’est la dernière façon qu’on lui donne.  »
Peu d’artistes européens ont utilisé l’encre de Chine à la façon des Orientaux. Elle sert principalement dans le levé de croquis à la plume, ou quand l’artiste a voulu des aplats denses et brillants. L’encre de Chine en couche épaisse sur les supports picturaux européens a l’inconvénient de se craqueler. Son opacité est utile dans la réalisation de transparents depuis l’époque de la lanterne magique.
C’est surtout depuis la mise au point de la reprographie de dessin technique, d’une part, et de la photolithographie et de la photogravure à la fin du XIXe siècle que l’encre noire dite « de Chine » s’est diffusée en Occident. Ces procédés exigent un dessin au trait noir et sans nuances

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, faute duquel il faut effectuer un tramage et perdre la précision de la reproduction. L’encre métallo-gallique manquant d’opacité, on utilise de l’encre au carbone.
Le dessin technique, avant la généralisation du dessin assisté par ordinateur, se livrait normalement à l’« encre de Chine » sur papier calque. Il se réalisait souvent à partir d’un projet esquissé au crayon, les traits définitifs se traçant au tire-ligne, dans l’épaisseur requise. Le procédé permet une correction par grattage de l’encre de Chine. Les stylos tubulaires diffusés dans le dernier tiers du XXe siècle utilisaient une encre noire spéciale, qui a emprunté le nom de l’encre de Chine, sans en partager les propriétés.
Le dessin de presse se livrait souvent, au début du XXe siècle, dans les mêmes conditions, mais se réalisait, sur l’esquisse au crayon, avec une plume à dessiner, permettant un trait plus souple. Le procédé à l’encre de Chine sur calque a l’avantage de donner au trait un contour très net, que l’on n’obtienait pas avec d’autres papiers, et se reproduit efficacement par contact, si on ne souhaite pas d’agrandissement ou de réduction.
En bande dessinée, les artistes procèdaient le plus souvent en deux étapes. Ils dessinaient un crayonné au portemine ou au crayon, puis procèdaient à l’encrage à l’encre « de Chine », soit à la plume, soit au pinceau. La bande dessinée était ensuite mise en couleurs, en général avec un nombre réduit de nuances.
Les Chinois utilisaient aussi l’encre pour ses vertus médicinales : elle soulageait la douleur des brûlures, elle est utilisée aussi contre les vomissements de sang[réf. souhaitée].
L’encre de Chine sert aussi en microbiologie pour colorer la capsule des bactéries, ou en histologie générale pour mettre en évidence les cellules du système phagocytaire[réf. souhaitée].
Elle s’utilise aussi pour le tatouage. Le tatouage de la peine au visage était un châtiment dans la Chine ancienne ; l’encre servait aussi pour la décoration corporelle. Pour cet usage, un mélange de noir de carbone et d’eau suffit. La possible toxicité des composants de l’encre ordinaire devrait la faire exclure au profit de produits spécialement destinés au tatouage.
Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Joe Connolly (hurler)

Joe Connolly (born 13 October 1956) is an Irish retired hurler who played as a centre-forward for the Galway senior team.
Born in Castlegar, County Galway, Connolly first excelled at hurling whilst at school in St. Mary’s College, Galway. He arrived on the inter-county scene at the age of sixteen when he first linked up with the Galway minor team, before later joining the under-21 side. He made his senior debut in the 1976 championship. Connolly went on to play a key role for Galway for almost a decade

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, and won one All-Ireland medal. An All-Ireland runner-up on two occasions, Connolly captained Galway to the All-Ireland title in 1980.
As a member of the Connacht inter-provincial team at various times, Connolly won two Railway Cup medals

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. At club level he is a one-time All-Ireland medallist with Castlegar. In addition to this he also won two Connacht medals and two championship medals.
With University College Galway, Connolly won one Fitzgibbon Cup medal.
Throughout his career Connolly made 22 championship appearances for Galway. His retirement came following the conclusion of the 1984 championship.
As the third eldest of the Connolly dynasty, many of his brothers, John, Pádraic, Michael, Tom, Gerry and Murt, played with distinction for Castlegar and Galway. His son, Barry Connolly, has lined out for the Dublin senior team.
In retirement from playing, Connolly became involved in team management and coaching. He has served as a selector with the Galway senior team, while at club level he also served as manager of the Castlegar senior team.

During his tenure at University College Galway, Connolly was a key member of the university’s senior hurling team. In 1977 he lined out at full-forward as UCG reached the final of the inter-varsities championship. A 1–14 to 1–12 defeat of St. Patrick’s College, Maynooth gave him a coveted Fitzgibbon Cup medal.
Connolly joined the Castlegar senior hurling panel in 1974, however, the team were beaten in their quest for three championships in-a-row.
In 1979 Connolly was a key member of the team as Castlegar reached the championship final. First-time finalists Kinvara faced an uphill battle against roll of honour leaders Castlegar. A 2–13 to 0–6 victory gave Connolly his first championship medal. Old rivals Tremane provided the opposition in the subsequent provincial decider, however, a 4–12 to 0–5 victory gave Connolly a third Connacht medal. Castlegar later became the first team from Connacht to qualify for the All-Ireland decider. Antrim and Ulster champions Ballycastle provided the opposition, as Connolly and his four brotehrs faced six Donnelly brothers on the opposing team. Olcan McLaverty scored a goal in the first half, however, this failed to ignite the Ballycastle attack. Five minutes into the second half Liam Mulryan turned a Connolly pass into the net to take the lead. Ballycastle cut this lead to just a point, however, two points from brothers Gerry and Joe Connolly set up a 1–11 to 1–8 victory and a coveted All-Ireland medal for Connolly.
After losing back-to-back championship decider in 1982 and 1983, Castlegar were under pressure to deliver in 1984. A 3–10 to 0–11 victory over Killimordaly gave Connolly his second championship medal

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. Tooreen fell by 2–15 to 2–7 in the subsequent provincial final, giving Connolly a fourth Connacht medal. Castlegar later faced St. Martin’s of Kilkenny in the All-Ireland decider. Tom Moran scored two goals which seemed to put St. Martin’s in the driving seat, however, a goal by Kilkenny man Martin O’Shea for Castlegar secured a draw. The replay saw Tom Moran take centre stage once again, as St. Martin’s secured a 1–13 to 1–10 victory.
Connolly first came to prominence on the inter-county scene with the Galway minor and under-21 teams, however, he enjoyed little success in these grades. He made his senior championship debut on 18 July 1976 in a 3–12 to 3–9 All-Ireland quarter-final defeat of Kerry.
After three years of penultimate stage defeats, Galway shocked four-in-a-row hopefuls Cork in the All-Ireland semi-final and qualified for an All-Ireland final showdown with Kilkenny in 1979. In one of the worst All-Ireland finals of the decade, Galway goalkeeper Séamus Shinnors had an absolute nightmare of a game. A 70-yards free by Liam “Chunky” O’Brien after just four minutes dipped, hit off Shinnors and ended up in the Galway net. Galway fought back and went two points up twelve minutes into the second half, however, they failed to score for the rest of the game. Four minutes before the end of the game another long-range free for Kilkenny ended up in the net behind Shinnors. It was a score which summed up the day for Connolly’s side as Kilkenny went on to win by 2–12 to 1–8.
In 1980 Connolly was appointed captain as Galway defeated Kildare and Offaly to reach a second consecutive All-Ireland final. Munster champions Limerick provided the opposition on this occasion and an exciting championship decider followed. Bernie Forde and P. J. Molloy goals for Galway meant that the men from the west led by 2–7 to 1–5 at half-time. Éamonn Cregan single-handedly launched the Limerick counter-attack in the second-half. Over the course of the game he scored 2–7, including an overhead goal and a point in which he showed the ball to full-back Conor Hayes and nonchalantly drove the ball over the bar. It was not enough to stem the tide and Galway went on to win the game by 2–15 to 3–9. It was the county’s first All-Ireland title since 1923 and the celebrations surpassed anything ever seen in Croke Park. It took Connolly ten minutes to reach the rostrum in the Hogan Stand to collect the Liam McCarthy Cup, however, once there he delivered, in his native Irish, one of the most famous acceptance speeches of all-time.
“People of Galway, after fifty-seven years the All-Ireland title is back in Galway…It’s wonderful to be from Galway on a day like today. There are people back in Galway with wonder in their hearts, but also we must remember (Galway) people in England, in America, and round the world and maybe they are crying at this moment…People of Galway, we love you!”
The final phrase is an echo of Pope John Paul II’s address to the young people of Ireland the previous year. The celebrations didn’t just end with Connolly’s speech as Joe McDonagh seized the microphone and lead the crown in a version of the West’s Awake. Connolly rounded of the year by collecting a coveted All-Star award, as well as being named as the Texaco Hurler of the Year.
1981 saw Galway reach a third consecutive All-Ireland final and Offaly were the opponents. Everything seemed to be going well for Connolly’s side as Galway hoped to capture a second consecutive All-Ireland title. Offaly ‘keeper Damien Martin was doing great work in batting out an almost certain Galway goal early in the second-half. With twenty-three minutes left in the game Galway led by six points, however, they failed to score for the rest of the game. Johnny Flaherty hand-passed Offaly’s second goal with just three minutes remaining. At the long whistle Galway were defeated by 2–12 to 0–15.
The following few years proved difficult as Galway were knocked out of the championship at the All-Ireland semi-final stages in 1982 and 1983. Connolly retired from inter-county hurling following a serious knee injury in 1984.
Connolly also lined out with Connacht in the inter-provincial series of games and enjoyed much success.
In 1979 Connolly was at centre-forward as Connacht reached the inter-provincial decider. A 1–13 to 1–9 defeat by Leinster was the result on that occasion. Connolly retained the same position on the team and was appointed captain in 1980 as Connacht faced Railway Cup specialists Munster in the decider. A low-scoring game followed, however, a 1–5 to 0–7 victory gave Connacht their first Railway Cup title since 1947. It was Connolly’s first winners’ medal in the inter-pro competition.
Connacht reached the Railway Cup final again in 1982. A 3–8 to 2–9 victory over Leinster gave Connolly his second Railway Cup medal.
In 2008 Connolly became a selector with the Galway senior hurling team, under the management of John McIntyre. The highlight of his three years as a selector was a 2–22 to 1–17 defeat of Cork in 2010 to take the National League title.
Connolly has also served as manager of the Castlegar senior hurling team.
Connolly has served as a non-executive director of Irish language channel TG4 for a number of years. He has also worked as an analyst on Seó Spóirt and has co-hosted reality show Jockey Eile with Seán Bán Breathnach.
Born in Castlegar on the outskirts of Galway, Connolly was educated at Briarhill national school and later attended St. Mary’s College. After completing his Leaving Certificate in 1974, he completed a Bachelor of Arts in Irish and Geography at University College Galway, before later qualifying as a secondary school teacher in 1979. In spite of this he later worked as a sales director with Connolly Sports, a sportswear manufacturing company.

Timothy Holst

Timothy J. Holst (October 9, 1947 – April 16, 2009) began his circus career in 1971 graduating from Clown College, touring as a clown in 1972

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, and then became the singing ringmaster in 1973 with Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus.
The son of a postman and a nurse, Holst was born in Galesburg, Illinois. A lifelong Mormon, he served as a missionary for two years in Sweden. He attended Ricks College and Utah State University

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, studying drama

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. While performing in the summer stock theater in Yellow Stone National Park, he was “discovered” by a traveling promoter for Ringling Brothers.
He later became the General Manager of the Red Show and ultimately the Feld Entertainment Inc. Vice President of Talent and Production in 1984. He spent the last twenty years identifying and signing new hires for the circus, and was responsible for making deals with then-Communist countries to hire performers and enter into cultural exchanges. As the talent scout for Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus, he traveled to 164 countries, where he recruited more than 3,000 people before his death in 2009.
When not traveling 11 months of the year, Holst lived most of his adult life in Sarasota County, Florida. He died in Sao Paulo, Brazil while on a trip there to recruit circus performers. On January 16, 2013, Adrienne, Matthew and Megan Holst accepted the Ring of Fame award on behalf of their late father, Tim Holst. The official Circus Ring of Fame memorial tribute to Tim Holst from the Feld Family and Ringling Brothers Barnum & Bailey Circus can be seen on the Circle in Sarasota Florida on St. Armands Key.
Holst appeared in a segment of Sesame Street with nine other clowns

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. He is number 8 and he bonks himself on the head with a mallet.

Mexikanischer Stierkopfhai

Mexikanischer Stierkopfhai (Heterodontus mexicanus), Illustration
Der Mexikanische Stierkopfhai (Heterodontus mexicanus) ist ein maximal 70 cm langer Stierkopfhai. Er kommt nur im östlichen Pazifik vor der Küste Nord-, Mittel- und Südamerikas von der südlichen Baja California und dem Golf von Kalifornien über Guatemala und den Golf von Panamá bis Kolumbien vor.

Der Mexikanische Stierkopfhai hat eine Körperlänge von durchschnittlich 40 bis 50 cm und kann Maximalgrößen von 60 cm erreichen. Er hat eine grau-braune Körperfärbung mit großen schwarzen Flecken, die über den Körper und die Flossen verteilt sind. Zwischen den Augenwülsten zieht sich ein helles Band entlang.
Der Hai besitzt einen zylindrischen Körper mit einem konisch geformten Kopf. Die Schnauze ist sehr klein und breit gerundet, die Augenwülste sind niedrig ausgeprägt. Er besitzt eine Afterflosse und zwei Rückenflossen

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, die beide bedornt sind. Die erste Rückenflosse beginnt über der Basis der Brustflossen, die zweite Rückenflosse hinter dem Ende der Bauchflossen. Die Bauchflossen sind doppelt so groß wie die Rückenflossen

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. Der Hai besitzt fünf vergleichsweise lange Kiemenspalten und ein kleines Spritzloch (Spiraculum) unterhalb des Auges.
Der Mexikanische Stierkopfhai ist eine relativ häufige Art im Bereich des Kontinentalschelfs sowie an Inselsockeln, wo er in Küstennähe (Gezeitenzone) kann nahe dem Meeresboden in 20 bis 50 m Tiefe lebt

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. Dabei bevorzugt er steinige oder sandige Untergründe. Er ernährt sich räuberisch vor allem von Weichtieren und anderen wirbellosen Tiere wie Krebse und Seeigel sowie kleinen Fischen.
Er ist wie alle Stierkopfhaie eierlegend (ovipar) und legt 8 bis 9 cm lange Eier mit auffälligen T-Strukturen und langen Hornfäden ab. Die Junghaie schlüpfen mit einer Größe von etwa 14 cm. Die Geschlechtsreife erreichen die Tiere bei einer Länge von ungefähr 40 bis 50 cm.
Der Mexikanische Stierkopfhai kommt nur im östlichen Pazifik vor der Küste Nord-

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, Mittel- und Südamerikas von der südlichen Baja California und dem Golf von Kalifornien über Guatemala und den Golf von Panamá bis Kolumbien vor.

Hridayaleeswarar Temple

Sri Hridayaleeswarar sivan temple is a Hindu temple, located at Thirunindravur near Chennai, India.
This temple has a trustee which was formed in the late 1920s by a leading industrialist Mr.P.S.Saathappa Chettiar from Coimbatore

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. This trustee is maintained by his successors.
Thirunindravur, near Chennai once saw the outpour of devotion of a devout heart as well as the reciprocated grace as a result of the intense devotion. Poosalaar, was a poor man in terms of material wealth but rich in dedicated devotion towards Lord Shiva. His heart brimmed with love and devotion for the Lord. He was called Poosalaar as his body was always smeared with the sacred ash, (Tamil-Poosu-Apply). Bhagavan Ramana says that the right kind of desire on the spiritual path will condition an aspirant to become one with the divine ultimately. Poosalaar was not an exception to this and he yearned to erect a beautiful temple for his heart’s favourite. However he became the object of people’s ridicule for his herculean desire in his impoverished condition.
Poosalaar however was not deterred by the words of the people

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. His heart was large enough to house Shiva’s temple and his love served to implement the task with ease. Meanwhile, Rajasimha Pallava, the King of Kanchi had undertaken the task of erecting a temple for Lord Shiva. On the completion of the task, the king wanted it to be named Rajasimeswaram and duly consecrated. Hence the king fixed a date for the consecration. The day before the assigned date the king’s heart was brimming with pride of having erected a beautiful temple for the Lord as his eyes shut with his thoughts vanishing into his sleep. And Lo

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! The Lord appeared in his dream and stated that He will not be able make present Himself in the consecration ceremony as He will be present in the consecration ceremony of another temple built by an ardent devotee, Poosalaar. Hence the king was asked by the Lord to choose another date to have Him installed ceremoniously on another day in the temple built by him.
The surprised king immediately commanded the culmination of the ceremonies associated with the temple consecration and proceeded to check out on the temple of Poosalaar. Coming to know that Poosalaar lived in a nearby town he set out towards Thirunindravur. The king was perplexed on the results of his enquiry that Poosalaar lived in poverty and there was not a sign of a new temple being erected in Thirunindravur. Counting on the Lord’s words, the King sought to meet Poosalaar who was meditating under a tree. The king approached Poosalaar and stated the purpose of his visit. Poosalaar replied with joy to have a look at the ceremonious installation of Lord Shiva in the temple that he had built

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. Lo and Behold! The king witnessed the consecration ceremony of the temple built by Poosalaar within the heart of Poosalaar, with the chanting of the Vedas and other ceremonial activities!
It was then that the king realized that the poor devotee had visualized his desire stage by stage within his heart, surrendering his will and wish to his beloved Lord. The pure devotion and the unconditional love for the Lord had led the almighty to be enshrined in his heart forever. The king then materialized the temple that Poosalaar had built in the cavern of his heart before having the temple built by him duly consecrated. He called the deity ‘Irudhayaleeswarar’, the one who abides in the heart. It is to be noted that Poosalaar is one of the sixty three Nayanmars stated in the Periyapuranam.
This temple is a wonderful witness to reinforce our spiritual fact that ‘whole hearted devotion’ surpasses anything other
Thirunindravur, the place where the temple of Hridayaleeswarar is situated is located in the Thiruvallur district of Tamil Nadu near Chennai. The inner roof of the temple is fashioned like that of a heart divided into four compartments probably displaying Poosalaar’s conception. Parvati here is worshipped as Maragathambigai. Poosalaar’s statue is found with folded hands in the shrine of Irudhayaleeeswarar. Irudhayaleeswarar is also worshipped as Manavaleswarar. People with an ailing heart is said to flock to this temple for speedy recovery due to Irudhayaleeswarar’s grace.
The story of this temple states that the Lord surrenders to the ambit of a devotee’s pure devotion and not extravaganza. The story symbolically represents the Vedic principle of seeking the lord within one’s heart and to ultimately lose oneself in Him indivisibly which is what is realization. Poosalaar sought the Lord within Himself which led to His liberation from the cycle of birth and death. In the words of Ramana Maharshi, the greatest form of bakti or devotion is to find and identify Him within oneself to destroy even the least distance between Him and the one seeking to.

Do Not Track

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.
In December 2010, Microsoft announced support for the DNT mechanism in its Internet Explorer 9 web browser. Mozilla’s Firefox became the first browser to implement the feature, while Internet Explorer, Apple’s Safari, Opera and Google Chrome all later added support.
The header field name is DNT and it currently accepts three values: 1 in case the user does not want to be tracked (opt out), 0 in case the user consents to being tracked (opt in), or null (no header sent) if the user has not expressed a preference. The default behavior required by the standard is not to send the header unless the user enables the setting via their browser or their choice is implied by use of that specific browser.

In 2007, several consumer advocacy groups asked the U.S. Federal Trade Commission to create a Do Not Track list for online advertising. The proposal would have required that online advertisers submit their information to the FTC, which would compile a machine-readable list of the domain names used by those companies to place cookies or otherwise track consumers.
In July 2009, researchers Christopher Soghoian and Sid Stamm created a prototype add-on for the Firefox web browser, implementing support for the Do Not Track header. Stamm was, at the time, a privacy engineer at Mozilla, while Soghoian soon afterward started working at the FTC. One year later, during a U.S. Senate privacy hearing, FTC Chairman Jon Leibowitz told the Senate Commerce Committee that the commission was exploring the idea of proposing a “do-not-track” list.
In December 2010, the FTC issued a privacy report that called for a “do not track” system that would enable people to avoid having their actions monitored online.
One week later, Microsoft announced that its next browser would include support for Tracking Protection Lists, that block tracking of consumers using blacklists supplied by third parties. In January 2011, Mozilla announced that its Firefox browser would soon provide a Do Not Track solution, via a browser header. Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, Apple’s Safari, Opera and Google Chrome all later added support for the header approach.
In August 2015 a coalition of privacy groups led by the Electronic Frontier Foundation using W3C’s Tracking Preference Expression (DNT) standard proposed that “Do not track” be the goal for advocates to demand of businesses.
When using the “Express” settings upon installation, a Do Not Track option is enabled by default for Internet Explorer 10 and Windows 8. Microsoft faced criticism for its decision to enable Do Not Track by default from advertising companies, who say that use of the Do Not Track header should be a choice made by the user and must not be automatically enabled. The companies also said that this decision would violate the Digital Advertising Alliance’s agreement with the U.S. government to honor a Do Not Track system, because the coalition said it would only honor such a system if it were not enabled by default by web browsers. A Microsoft spokesperson defended its decision however, stating that users would prefer a web browser that automatically respected their privacy.
On September 7, 2012, Roy Fielding, an author of the Do Not Track standard, submitted a patch to the source code of the Apache HTTP Server, which would make the server explicitly ignore any use of the Do Not Track header by users of Internet Explorer 10. Fielding asserted that Microsoft’s decision “deliberately violates” the Do Not Track specification because it “does not protect anyone’s privacy unless the recipients believe it was set by a real human being, with a real preference for privacy over personalization.” The Do Not Track specification did not explicitly mandate that the use of Do Not Track actually be a choice until after the feature was implemented in Internet Explorer 10. Fielding pointed out that Microsoft knew its false signals claiming that users had chosen Do Not Track would be ignored, and that its goal was to effectively give an illusion of privacy while still catering to their own interests. On October 9, 2012, Fielding’s patch was commented out, restoring the previous behavior.
On April 3, 2015, Microsoft announced that as of Windows 10, it would comply with the specification and no longer enable Do Not Track as part of the operating system’s “Express” default settings, but that the company will “provide customers with clear information on how to turn this feature on in the browser settings should they wish to do so”.
When a web browser requests content or sends data using HTTP, it can include extra information optionally in one or more items called “headers”

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. Do not track adds a header (DNT: 1), indicating that the user does not want to be tracked. The browser user has no control over whether the request is honoured or not.
There are no legal or technological requirements for its use, when it’s enabled by default on browsers. As such, websites and advertisers may either honor the request, or completely ignore it in cases where it’s automatically set. The Digital Advertising Alliance does not require its members to honor automatically set DNT signals. “The Council of Better Business Bureaus and the Direct Marketing Association will not sanction or penalize companies or otherwise enforce with respect to DNT signal that is automatically set in IE10 or any other browser.”
There are organizations, such as DataNeutrality, that are involved in setting DNT guidelines for private companies involved in data collection.
Microsoft declares that it is not obeying DNT header:
Microsoft does not currently respond to browser DNT signals on its own websites or online services, or on third-party websites or online services where Microsoft provides advertisements, content, or is otherwise able to collect information.
Note

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, however, that this line is currently not part of the official privacy policy that is linked, and therefore may have been since altered and/or moved.