Nothing but the Beat

Nothing but the Beat is the fifth studio album by French DJ and record producer David Guetta, released on August 26, 2011. Released as a double album, the first disc features collaborations with artists from the R&B, hip hop and pop worlds such as Lil Wayne, Taio Cruz, Nicki Minaj, Ludacris, Snoop Dogg, Afrojack, Chris Brown, Flo Rida, Usher, Jennifer Hudson, Dev, Timbaland, Jessie J and Sia. Also making appearances are, Akon and Ne-Yo, all three of whom previously collaborated with Guetta on his fourth album, One Love. In comparison, the second disc features purely instrumental tracks. The album is also Guetta’s first album not to feature long-time collaborator Chris Willis on vocals. Critical reviews of the album were mixed.
The album spawned four singles which attained success on the Billboard Hot 100 – “Where Them Girls At”, “Without You”, “Turn Me On” and “Titanium” – becoming his third, fourth, fifth and sixth top 20 singles, respectively. On November 30, 2011, the album received a nomination for Grammy Award for Best Dance/Electronica Album at the 54th Grammy Awards. As of October 2012, the album has sold 407,000 copies in the US, and has received platinum certification by the IFPI for sales exceeding 1,000,000 copies throughout Europe. On March 26, 2012, the album was released as a standalone package, via the iTunes Store. This version was previously released through Beatport.
The album was then re-released on September 7, 2012 under the name Nothing but the Beat 2.0. It includes six new tracks including lead single “She Wolf (Falling to Pieces)”, which features Sia, who previously collaborated with Guetta on “Titanium”. The remixes of this single were released exclusively through Beatport on August 7, 2012. Several tracks from the original album have been removed from the re-release, however all the singles have been retained. A final edition of the album dubbed Nothing but the Beat Ultimate, was released on 10 December 2012 featuring the original album plus all of the new songs from the 2.0 edition – though contained the full-length edits of “Sunshine”, “Lunar” and “Metropolis”, as opposed to the shorter edits on 2.0 – and a 16-second shorter version of “Where Them Girls At”. It is noteworthy that all ten main singles from Nothing but the Beat, including the Guetta version of “Sweat”, have peaked within the top-twenty of the UK Singles Chart and as of January 2015 have all together gone on to sell in excess of 4 million copies in the UK.

“Where Them Girls At” was released as the album’s first single on May 2, 2011. The track itself is a collaboration with Flo Rida and Nicki Minaj. The release of the single came earlier than planned after computer hackers managed to obtain an early acapella version of the song, featuring just the rappers’ vocals and added their own production to the song before leaking it. It debuted at number fourteen on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, becoming Guetta’s third top twenty hit in the United States. The song charted within the top ten in eighteen countries, and peaked at number one on the UK Dance Chart.
“Little Bad Girl” was released as the album’s second single on June 27, 2011. The track itself is a collaboration with Taio Cruz and Ludacris. The music video was released on July 18, 2011. The track entered the top ten in several countries, and peaked at number one in Venezuela. However, the United States was the only territory where the track was not successful, peaking only at #70. It did, however, fare well on the American Hot Dance club songs chart.
“Without You” was released as the album’s third single on October 14, 2011. The track itself, originally written and recorded by Taio Cruz, is a collaboration with Usher. The music video was filmed at the end of July 2011. The track was sent to mainstream radio in the United States on September 27, 2011. It was a success worldwide, and reached the top ten in the United States.
“Titanium” was released as the album’s fourth international single on December 9, 2011. The track itself is a collaboration with Sia. “Titanium” was initially released as a promotional single from the album, and successfully charted worldwide. It was later released as the album’s fifth single in the United States, officially impacting Top 40, Mainstream and Rhythmic radio on April 24, 2012.
“Turn Me On” was released in the U.S., officially impacting Top 40, Mainstream and Rhythmic radio on December 13, 2011. The track itself is a collaboration with Nicki Minaj. It was later released as the album’s fifth international single in January 2012. The music video was filmed in November 2011 by director Sanji. The video was released on January 31, 2012.
“I Can Only Imagine” was released as the album’s sixth single on May 2, 2012. The track itself is a collaboration with Chris Brown and Lil Wayne. The music video, directed by Colin Tilley, was filmed on May 29, 2012. The video was released on July 2, 2012. The track peaked at number one in Belgium, as well as achieving high success in Poland. The track has also charted in thirteen other territories. It was officially sent to American radio on August 7, 2012, where it peaked at #44.
Four songs were digitally released as promotional singles for the album: “Titanium” (which later became the official single) on August 8, 2011, “Lunar” (with Afrojack) on August 15, 2011, “Night of Your Life” (featuring Jennifer Hudson) on August 22, 2011 and “The Alphabeat” on March 26, 2012. The first three were released as part of the iTunes Store’s countdown to the album’s release.
It is noteworthy that all ten main singles from Nothing but the Beat, including the Guetta version Sweat, have peaked within the top-twenty of the UK Singles Chart and as of January 2015 have all together gone on to sell in excess of four million copies in the country.
At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted mean rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 56, based on 17 reviews, which indicates mixed or average reviews. David Jeffries wrote for AllMusic that “Nothing But the Beat offers the same experience as one of Guetta’s numerous remix sets, but declared that “something’s missing, something along the lines of ‘When Love Takes Over’.” In the same vein, Al Fox wrote for BBC Music that “Whether you could go so far as to call Guetta an auteur might be pushing it, but it’s a cohesive effort, if not quite a work of art.” Entertainment Weekly’s Mikael Wood praised the tracks “Night of Your Life” and “Titanium” but felt that “the album feels colder than its sweat factor suggests.” In an almost neutral review, Jon Dolan wrote for Rolling Stone that the album “shows how good he is at making Eurohouse’s thumping trounce and jet-engine synth whoosh feel like natural elements in the hip-hop, R&B and even rock continuum.
Ally Carnwath wrote a negative review for The Observer, rating it 1 out of 5 stars, writing that the album’s collaborations “struggle to impose any distinctive personality on the overall mood of relentless rictus-grin-inducing euphoria.” Tom Ewing from The Guardian criticized Guetta for making “tiring dancefloor fillers” and concluded that “Nothing But the Beat may sound like a one-man hit parade, but it also takes its title far too literally.” Eric Henderson wrote negatively for Slant Magazine that “His sound may be the most influential force in pop music today, but he’s paradoxically been artistically overshadowed by imitators and innovators alike, all of whom demonstrate a better understanding of power pop’s legacy (Lady Gaga’s “The Edge of Glory”), dance-floor dynamics (Rihanna’s “S&M”), and ridiculous self-awareness (LMFAO’s “Party Rock Anthem”).” Robert Christgau gave the album a B+ grade, writing that while he “only wish[es] it had a few ‘I Gotta Feeling’s”, it ultimately “offends club sophisticates no less than living-room discophobes.”

^[a] signifies co-producer or additional production by
The album’s re-release Nothing but the Beat 2.0 was preceded with the release of “She Wolf (Falling to Pieces),” on August 21, 2012. It is Guetta’s second collaboration with Sia following “Titanium”. A number of remixes of the track were first made available via Beatport on August 7, 2012, with contributors including Michael Calfan and Sandro Silva. The single was later released physically and digitally on August 24, 2012, in the United Kingdom and Germany. The track was officially sent to American radio on January 7, 2013. “Just One Last Time” was released as the album’s ninth overall single on November 15, 2012, and the second from the album’s re-release. The track itself is a collaboration with Taped Rai. The track was released in the United Kingdom on December 31, 2012, and became only the second single from the album, following on from I Can Only Imagine, which did not receive an official physical release. The music video was released on December 3, 2012, again directed by Colin Tilley. “Play Hard” featuring Akon and Ne-Yo has been remixed by Guetta, and this new version was released as the tenth and final single from “Nothing But The Beat”.
On April 11, 2012, Guetta has released his collaboration track with Nicky Romero “Metropolis” through Beatport as the first release of his new label Jack Back Records. A shortened edit of the song was later included in Nothing but the Beat 2.0. On October 19, a video for “Metropolis” was uploaded to YouTube and, as of April 2014, has over 10 million views. The video, a burn production directed by Mr. Brainwash, opens with a television with text on the screen that reads, “art cannot be criticized because every mistake is a new creation”, and contains scenes involving paint, graffiti, the breaking of objects, and Guetta and Romero DJing.
(*) denotes additional production
A feature-length biographical documentary about Guetta was released on 1 September 2011. Named after the album Nothing but the Beat, the documentary follows Guetta on tour around the world and behind the scenes of major concerts, featuring interviews with collaborative and associated artists, friends, colleagues, and his wife to chronicle his rise from underground house DJ to global superstar. It was produced alongside the energy drink brand Burn. Featured artists include, Kelly Rowland, Snoop Dogg, Ludacris, Taio Cruz, and dance music legends Fatboy Slim, David Morales, and Pete Tong, plus new talent Afrojack and Avicii. The film received its official premiere at Paris’ largest operating movie theatre Le Grand Rex, where it played to over 2,000 fans and guests. Others involved in the production of the documentary included What A Music, Pardeep Sall (Trouble Makers Associates), filmmakers Partizan and innovation house Deviant Venture, and was released as a free podcast on iTunes.
*sales figures based on certification alone ^shipments figures based on certification alone xunspecified figures based on certification alone

Anarchismus in den Vereinigten Staaten

Der Anarchismus in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika entwickelte sich im Anschluss an die Unabhängigkeit des Landes und begann sich ab etwa 1850 auszuweiten. Dabei gab es zwei (zum Teil) stark entgegengesetzte Strömungen: die individualanarchistische und die sozialanarchistische Tradition.

Der individualistische Anarchismus basiert auf den gesellschaftlichen und weltanschaulichen Voraussetzungen des Landes selbst. Bezeichnet wird er auch als native, das heißt einheimischer Anarchismus. Sein Merkmal ist der ausgeprägte individuelle Freiheitsgedanke. Nach der individualanarchistischen Tradition sei die beste Regierung die, die gar nicht regiert, was aus der amerikanischen Unabhängigkeitserklärung (Verfasser: Thomas Jefferson) abgeleitet ist, die besagt: die beste Regierung ist jene, die am wenigsten regiert. C.L. James und Rudolf Rocker vertraten die Meinung, dass der amerikanische Anarchismus viel älter sei als der europäische, demnach sei der Anarchismus keine ausländische Besonderheit.
Ein bekannter Vertreter des Individualanarchismus war Josiah Warren. Dieser begann sich im Jahr 1825 für soziale Reformen zu engagieren und war für gerechte Entlohnung. Durch ihn entwickelte sich eine starke Kommunenbewegung (zum Beispiel Oneida, 1848–1881) in den Vereinigten Staaten. Diese Kommunen waren meist christlich geprägt und waren der stärkste Widerstand gegen staatliche Intervention. Die Kommunenbewegung war größtenteils ländlich beziehungsweise agrarisch orientiert und hatte einen konservativen Charakter. Einige Individualanarchisten hatten eine bewusste Distanz zum Industrialisierungsprozess eingenommen.
Warren glaubte an die Prinzipien sozialer Gerechtigkeit und gegenseitiger Hilfe, ohne dass ein organisatorischer Rahmen die individuelle Freiheit einschränken dürfe. Die von Warren gegründeten Kommunen lehnten ein Kollektivleben ab: Individuen beziehungsweise einzelne Familien lebten relativ zurückgezogen und die sozialen Aktivitäten waren auf notwendige Gemeinschaftsarbeiten zum Erhalt der Kommune reduziert. Zudem gab es kaum Engagement für soziale Gerechtigkeit, das über die Kommune hinausging. Viele für Warrens Politik charakteristischen Züge bestimmten die Schwerpunkte der gesamten Epoche des amerikanischen Individualistischen Anarchismus: Pazifismus, Gleichberechtigung der Geschlechter, sexuelle Freiheit, Ablehnung bestehender Steuersysteme und Pragmatismus. Warren starb 1874, sein Einfluss war groß, auch auf den literarischen Kreis (zum Beispiel Henry David Thoreau). Warrens Projekt wurde von Benjamin Tucker abgeschlossen, der als letzter großer Vertreter gilt.
Im 19. Jahrhundert rückte in den Vereinigten Staaten die Soziale Frage besonders in den Industriezentren ins Zentrum. Die Arbeiterschaft bestand großteils aus Immigranten, vor allem aus Osteuropa, Deutschland und Italien. Aus ihnen bestand auch der größte Teil der anarchistischen Kreise der Arbeiterschaft, deshalb wird der Sozialanarchismus auch als ausländischer Anarchismus bezeichnet. Es ging beim Gegensatz zwischen Individual- und Sozialanarchismus um die Gewaltfrage angesichts des expliziten und praktizierten Pazifismus der Individualanarchisten bei gleichzeitiger Teilnahme von Sozialanarchisten an vorderster Front der Klassenkämpfe des 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhunderts. Es bestand eine Militanz der radikalen anarchistischen Arbeiterbewegung. Johann Most war ein wichtiger Akteur der anarchistischen Bewegung, er gründete die deutschsprachige anarchistische Zeitschrift Freiheit in den Vereinigten Staaten. Primäres Zentrum der Arbeiteragitation war Chicago mit dem Kampf um die Einführung des Acht-Stunden-Tags, Chicago stellte beim Kongress der anarchistischen Working People’s Association in Pittsburgh die Hälfte der 6000 Teilnehmer. Chicago war ein bevorzugtes Ziel bei Immigranten, zu denen hauptsächlich wegen der Bismarckschen Sozialistengesetze zahlreiche deutsche Sozialisten zählten. Im Mai 1886 eskalierten zuerst friedlich gebliebene Streiks in die Haymarket-Affäre.
Zu den für Anarchisten in dieser Zeitspanne erwähnenswerten Ereignissen/Protagonisten zählen:
Erst durch die Studentenproteste und die Bewegung gegen den Vietnamkrieg in den 1960er Jahren kam dem Anarchismus wieder verstärkt Bedeutung zu. Allerdings eher im Sinne einer allgemeinen „anarchistischen Stimmung“ als in Form expliziter anarchistischer Politik. Der Einfluss der radikalen Organisationen war eher gering (zum Beispiel Black Panther Party). Gruppen, deren Aktivismus deutlich anarchistische Züge trug, waren Point Black in San Francisco und Black Mask in New York. Der wichtigste Sprecher des „Neuen Anarchismus“ war der Autor Murray Bookchin, der durch seinen Artikel Listen,Marxist! bekannt wurde.
Nach den Anti-WTO-Protesten in Seattle 1999 entstand der sogenannte „Neue Anarchismus“. Durch die Anti-WTO-Proteste in Seattle Ende 1999 entwickelte sich der Anarchismus wieder zu einer breiten politischen Bewegung in den Vereinigten Staaten.
1989 wurde das Love and Rage Network offiziell gegründet. Es transformierte sich später in die Love and Rage Revolutionary Anarchist Federation, spaltete sich aber 1998 und löste sich auf. 2000 startete die auf plattformistischen Ideen basierende North Eastern Federation of Anarchist Communists (NEFAC). Diese Föderation war vor allem im Nordosten Nordamerikas aktiv und spaltete sich 2008 in zwei Gruppen: die Union Communiste Libertaire bestand hauptsächlich aus Mitglieder in Québec und Mitglieder der Vereinigten Staaten, die zunächst den Namen NEFAC weiterführten und sich 2011 in Common Struggle umbenannten. Sie wurden später Mitglied der Black Rose Anarchist Federation, die weit verstreute Ortsgruppen in den Vereinigten Staaten hat. Black Rose kann nicht als plattformistische Organisation bezeichnet werden, steht aber teilweise dem Especifismo nah, einer dem Plattformismus ähnlichen Strömung in Südamerika.

Ritter Sport

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Ritter Sport (Alfred Ritter GmbH & Co. KG) est un fabricant allemand de chocolat.
En 1912, Alfred et Clara Ritter fondent une entreprise de chocolat et de confiserie Alfred Ritter Cannstat, dans le Bade-Wurtemberg, en Allemagne. En 1919, l’entreprise déménage à Bad Cannstatt et lance sur le marché sa propre marque de chocolat : Alrika. L’entreprise compte alors une quarantaine d’employés. En 1930, l’entreprise redéménage et s’installe à Waldenbuch. En 1932 naît la fameuse tablette de chocolat carrée de 100 g, imaginée par Clara Ritter.
En raison de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, la production ralentit en 1939, puis s’arrête totalement en 1940. L’entreprise ne refonctionnera qu’en 1946, et reprendra toute sa gamme de production en 1950. En 1952, Alfred Otto Ritter, le fils d’Alfred Ritter, reprend l’entreprise après le décès de celui-ci.
En 1954, la firme, qui compte déjà plus de 100 employés, atteint une production quotidienne de 4 tonnes de chocolat en tablettes. En 1959, c’est Clara Ritter qui décède à l’âge de 82 ans.
En 1970, grâce à une forte campagne télévisée, Ritter Sport s’établit dans toute l’Allemagne. Le slogan Quadratisch. Praktisch. Gut. (Carré. Pratique. Bon.) apparaît. En 1972, l’entreprise atteint un chiffre d’affaires de 100 millions de Deutsche Mark. En 1974, une particularité de la marque est inventée par Alfred Otto Ritter : à chaque variété de chocolat correspond une couleur différente de l’emballage des tablettes. En 1982, les mini tablettes Ritter Sport sont introduites sur le marché. En 1987, l’entreprise atteint un chiffre d’affaires de 400 millions de Deutsche Mark et compte 710 employés. En 1998, la firme atteint les 507 millions de Deutsche Mark de chiffre d’affaires.
En 2001 est ouvert le musée du chocolat. Les visiteurs peuvent s’y informer sur la fabrication du chocolat ainsi que sur l’histoire de la maison Ritter Sport.
Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

1994 Calder Cup playoffs

The 1994 Calder Cup playoffs of the American Hockey League began on April 13, 1994. The twelve teams that qualified, four from each division, played best-of-seven series for division semifinals and division finals. The highest remaining seed received a bye for the third round while the other two remaining teams played a best-of-3 series series, with the winner advancing to play the bye-team in a best-of-seven series for the Calder Cup. The Calder Cup Final ended on May 29, 1994 with the Portland Pirates defeating the Moncton Hawks four games to one to win the first Calder Cup in team history. Portland’s Olaf Kolzig won the Jack A. Butterfield Trophy as AHL playoff MVP.
Portland’s Mike Boback tied an AHL playoff record for points in a single playoff game by scoring 7 points (3 goals, 4 assists) in game 5 of the Northern division semifinal against the Albany River Rats.

After the 1993-94 AHL regular season, 12 teams qualified for the playoffs. The top four teams from each division qualified for the playoffs. The St. John’s Maple Leafs finished the regular season with the best overall record.
In each round the team that earned more points during the regular season receives home ice advantage, meaning they receive the “extra” game on home-ice if the series reaches the maximum number of games. For the Semifinal round, the team that earned the most points during the regular season out of the three remaining teams receives a bye directly to the Calder Cup Final. There is no set series format due to arena scheduling conflicts and travel considerations.

The deciding game was the last for the sixty-year-old Springfield Indians franchise, which moved to Worcester, Massachusetts, in the offseason to become the Worcester IceCats.

Thomas Smartt

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Sir Thomas William Smartt (né en Irlande le 22 février 1858 et mort au Cap en Afrique du Sud le 17 avril 1929) est un homme politique sud-africain. Membre de l’assemblée législative de la colonie du Cap (1894-1910), il est ministre de l’intérieur (1896-1898), secrétaire colonial (1898 et 1908) et ministre des travaux publics de la colonie du Cap (1900-1902 et 1904-1908). Fondateur et dirigeant du parti unioniste avant de rallier le parti sud-africain en 1920, il est aussi membre du parlement de l’Union de l’Afrique du Sud (1910-1929), et membre du gouvernement Smuts en tant que ministre de l’agriculture.
Diplômé en médecine de l’Université de Dublin en 1880, il émigre dans la colonie du Cap où il est élu en 1893 membre de l’Assemblée législative pour la circonscription de Wodehouse. Il est alors membre de l’Afrikaner Bond de Jan Hofmeyr. Trois ans plus tard, il entre dans le gouvernement de Sir John Gordon Sprigg en tant que ministre de l’Intérieur.
Durant la seconde guerre des Boers, il participe à la défense de Kimberley au côté de Cecil Rhodes.
De 1900 à 1902, il est ministre des Travaux publics de la colonie du Cap dans le gouvernement de John Gordon Sprigg. En 1904, il retrouve ce poste dans le cabinet de Leander Starr Jameson. A trois reprises (1904, 1905 et 1906), il est premier ministre de la colonie du Cap par interim.
De 1908 à 1909, en tant que délégué de la colonie du Cap, il est membre de la Convention nationale qui élabore les modalités de formation de l’Union de l’Afrique du Sud.
En mai 1910, il fonde le parti unioniste d’Afrique du Sud (Unionisteparty), issu de la fusion entre le parti unioniste de la colonie du Cap, le parti constitutionnel de la colonie de la rivière Orange et le parti progressiste du Transvaal. Ce parti unioniste, dirigé par Leander Starr Jameson, est pro-britannique, attaché à l’impérialisme britannique et veut faire de l’Afrique du Sud un dominion blanc similaire aux autres dominions de l’Empire. Il représente à la fois les intérêts miniers anglophones et les classes aisées et moyenne de la bourgeoisie britannique ou anglophone d’Afrique du Sud. Suite aux premières élections générales d’Afrique du Sud en septembre 1910, le parti unioniste constitue, durant les deux premières sessions parlementaires (1910-1920), l’opposition officielle au Parlement face au Parti sud-africain de Louis Botha et de Jan Smuts.
En 1912, Smartt succède à Jameson en tant que chef du parti unioniste. En 1915, en pleine Première Guerre mondiale, le parti sud-africain perd sa majorité absolue en sièges au parlement mais conserve le pouvoir grâce au soutien de Smartt et de son parti. Cependant, lors des élections générales de 1920, le parti national supplante le parti unioniste et le parti sud-africain sans obtenir toutefois la majorité absolue des sièges. En nombre de sièges, le parti unioniste devient la troisième formation politique du parlement, perdant son statut d’opposition officielle. Smartt signe alors une alliance politique avec le général Jan Smuts, premier ministre de l’Union qui amène le parti unioniste à se saborder en novembre 1920 et ses élus à rallier le parti sud-africain pour contrer la montée du nationalisme afrikaner. Lors des élections anticipées de 1921, le parti sud-africain remporte de nouveau la majorité des sièges et reçoit le soutien en prime du parti travailliste d’Afrique du Sud. Jusqu’en 1924, Smartt est alors ministre de l’Agriculture de l’Union sud-africaine.
Malade, Smartt quitte la vie politique juste avant les élections de 1929 et décède peu de temps après le 17 avril de cette année au Cap.

Żeligowski’s Mutiny

Żeligowski’s Mutiny (Polish: bunt Żeligowskiego also żeligiada, Lithuanian: Želigovskio maištas) was a Polish military operation led by General Lucjan Żeligowski in October 1920, which resulted in the creation of the Republic of Central Lithuania. Polish Chief of State Józef Piłsudski had surreptitiously ordered Żeligowski to carry out the operation, and revealed the truth several years later. This operation paved the way for the Polish annexation of Vilnius, and the Vilnius Region, two years later.

In late 1920, the Polish-Soviet War was ending with the Soviets defeated at the Battle of Warsaw and in full retreat. The disputed Vilnius region centered around the Lithuanian capital of Vilnius (Polish Wilno), which had been founded by the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas in 1323 and had been the Lithuanian capital ever since. Vilnius had been retaken by the Soviets during their summer 1920 offensive. The Soviets returned the region to the Lithuanians because the latter had allowed Soviet troops to move through Lithuanian territory and engaged Polish forces in the disputed territories (see Soviet-Lithuanian Treaty of 1920, and Polish-Lithuanian War).
This move allowed the Soviets to retain tactical control of the region, deny it to the Poles, and increase the already high tensions between the Poles and Lithuanians, both of whom claimed the disputed territory as their own.
In early October 1920, under international pressure from the Spa and Suwałki Conferences, the Poles and Lithuanians signed a ceasefire in the Sudova region, but, with the issue of Vilnius remaining under Lithuanian control, the issue was unresolved. The Poles rested their claim on then current ethnographic considerations. Lithuania pointed to Vilnius as its historical capital and denied Polish claims to it as baseless. The Poles did not wish to continue the war as the Polish army was tired, and Polish Chief of State Józef Piłsudski was still hoping to create a Międzymorze federation, to include a Lithuania friendly to Poland, but wanted to ensure that Vilnius would be part of a Polish sphere of influence. From the Lithuanian point of view, that was highly unlikely, as many Lithuanians saw Polish influence as pernicious and had wanted to be rid of Polish influence from as far back as the marriage of Grand Duke Jogaila to the then 11-year-old Queen Jadwiga of Poland in 1386. In particular, Lithuanian nationalists opposed any further connection to Poland, especially after the Polish invasion occupied Vilnius.
The negotiations on the future of the disputed area, held under the auspice of a Conference of Ambassadors in Brussels and Paris, reached a stalemate, and Piłsudski feared that the Entente might accept the fait accompli that had been created by the Soviets’ transfer of territorial control to Lithuania.
Poland and Lithuania were to adhere to a mutually agreed upon ceasefire in Suwałki Region on October 10, but the Poles decided to circumvent the ceasefire by creating a “fait accompli” of their own. Piłsudski concluded that the best course of action would be one that supported the pro-Polish faction in Lithuania, but that could not be traced directly to Poland. However, his plans for a coup d’état in 1919 had been foiled by the premature and unplanned Sejny Uprising, which had led to the destruction of the Polish Military Organization (P.O.W.) intelligence network in Lithuania by the Lithuanian Army and State Security Department.
In October 1920, Polish General Lucjan Żeligowski, a native of the historic lands of Lithuania, was given command of the 1st Lithuanian-Belarusian Infantry Division (comprising mostly Poles from the Polish marches). Żeligowski had been contacted by Piłsudski as early as late September 1920 with suggestions to carry out a “mutiny.” They prepared a plan by which Żeligowski and forces under his command were to pretend to desert from the Polish Army and then take control of the city of Vilnius and the Vilnius region. The Polish government would officially deny its involvement, thereby preserving its reputation on the international scene.
Żeligowski, like Piłsudski himself—may have been one of many who were torn between Lithuanian and Polish identities; possibly, in proclaiming a Central Lithuania, he honestly believed that he was creating a Lithuania even if it that was dominated by Polish culture rather than Lithuanian culture.
On October 6, 1920, Żeligowski informed his officers of the plans for mutiny; at that point, no one under his command knew that he was acting with Piłsudski’s backing, and some refused to follow him. Support for Żeligowski wavered to such an extent that on October 7, he messaged Piłsudski that he could not carry out the operation due to lack of support among his troops. Eventually, however, most of the officers and men decided to follow him, and he proceeded with the operation.
Żeligowski’s forces set out on the morning of October 8 (two days before the Suwałki Agreement ceasefire was to take hold). That day, he declared that he would “liberate Wilno from Lithuanian occupation” and “form a parliament which will decide the fate of the disputed territories.”
Żeligowski’s forces—numbering some 14,000, centered around his 1st Lithuanian-Belarusian Infantry Division—defeated the Lithuanian 4th Infantry Regiment near the Rūdininkai Forest, and again in a skirmish near Jašiūnai. Polish forces reached the vicinity of Wilno, but were slowed enough to delay their taking the city until the next day. The death toll, as reported by contemporary sources, was low: “a few casualties” on both sides.
The Lithuanian forces in the region were heavily outnumbered: they not only faced Żeligowski’s numerically superior regular forces, supported by Polish Army logistics, but also had to garrison Vilnius, whose Polish population was restless. On October 9, the Lithuanian forces were unable to defend Vilnius and evacuated the city, with only token attempts at defending it (the decision to evacuate was made in the afternoon of October 8, and the evacuation took place during the night of October 8–9). When Polish units assaulted the remaining Lithuanian defenses around Vilnius, the city’s Polish population supported the Polish troops, with militia units staging an uprising and engaging Lithuanian units still in the city, and civilians welcoming the Polish troops as they entered Vilnius.
Lithuanian government representatives (led by Ignas Jonynas) passed control of the city to resident Entente officials (led by French colonel Constantin Reboul). Żeligowski, however, refused to recognize their authority, and they were forced to leave the city.
On October 12, Żeligowski proclaimed the independence of the area as the Republic of Central Lithuania, with Vilnius as its capital. Most historians agree that the state was dependent on Poland, but they disagree to what extent (Polish historian Jerzy J. Lerski calls it a puppet state).
Meanwhile a uniformed Polish armed force of 20 airplanes and the 13th Cavalry Regiment under the command of Col. Butkiewicz joined the mutiny. The Polish Army, however, was officially bound by the Suwałki Agreement ceasefire and did not engage the Lithuanian units by the line. On October 20–21 there were further battles between Central and Lithuanian forces near the village of Pikeliškiai. On November 7, Żeligowski’s army began to advance upon Giedraičiai, Širvintos and Kėdainiai. Żeligowski’s proposals of a cease-fire were ignored by Lithuania. Żeligowski ignored League of Nations’s Military Control Commission proposals to withdraw to October 20–21 lines and begin negotiations. On November 17, Soviet Russia offered military aid, which the Lithuanians declined. Polish cavalry broke Lithuanian defense lines and on November 18 reached Kavarskas and continued toward Kaunas. However, on November 19–21, the Lithuanian main forces pushed Żeligowski’s main forces back near Giedraičiai and Širvintos. While some Lithuanian sources call this a major battle,[who?] in Polish literature, it is considered a local skirmish of minor importance.
Both sides were now exhausted. With the help of the League of Nations, on November 20 a ceasefire was negotiated, to take effect on November 21, 1920, at 9 o’clock in the morning; until then, both sides agreed to take no offensive actions. The Lithuanian 7th Infantry Regiment broke the agreement, counterattacking at Giedraičiai on the night of November 20–21, just before the ceasefire was to go into effect, persisting even after the ceasefire (until 1400); this offensive gained Giedraičiai for the Lithuanians. The Lithuanian forces stopped after a request from the League of Nations, and a truce was finally signed on November 29.
It was at this time that the close ally of Piłsudski, Michał Pius Römer, a leader of the Krajowcy movement, broke with Pilsudski and made the decision to side with the re-established Lithuanian Republic, even though Piłsudski offered to appoint him Prime Minister of the Republic of Central Lithuania.
Żeligowski became the new state’s de facto military dictator, but after elections he relinquished his powers to the newly elected parliament.
In 1922 Central Lithuania’s parliament voted for their state’s incorporation into Poland. In 1923, soon after the League of Nations had recognized the existing situation and accepted the Polish-Lithuanian border on March 15, Piłsudski on August 24, 1923 would publicly admit that Żeligowski’s Mutiny had in fact been a pre-planned operation carried out with his knowledge and support.
Despite Poland’s claim to Vilnius, the League of Nations asked Poland to withdraw. Poland declined. In principle, British and French troops could have been asked to enforce the League’s decision. France, however, did not wish to antagonize Poland, a possible ally in a future war against Germany, and Britain was not prepared to act alone. Thus, the Poles were able to keep Vilnius, where a provisional government (Komisja Rządząca Litwy Środkowej, the Central Lithuanian Governing Commission) was formed. Soon parliamentary elections were held and the Wilno Diet (Sejm wileński) voted on February 20, 1922, for incorporation into Poland as the capital of a Wilno Voivodship. The elections were not recognized by the League of Nations.
The League of Nations Conference of Ambassadors accepted the status quo in 1923, but the Wilno region remained in dispute between Poland and Lithuania (the latter still treated Vilnius as its constitutional capital and the capital of the Vilnius region).
In Poland, the Mutiny was supported by some groups, such as the Christian Democrats and the left, but criticized by the right-wing National Democrats.[why?]
The coup resulted in a serious rift between Pilsudski and Ignacy Jan Paderewski, who had played a major role in creating international support for the independence of Poland. According to historian Timothy Snyder, the annexation of Vilnius by Poles pushed Lithuanian politicians from political towards ethnic understanding of the nation and gave arguments to radical politicians in Lithuania and also in Poland.
Lithuania refused to recognize Central Lithuania. Polish-Lithuanian relations began to normalize after League of Nations negotiations in 1927, but it was not until the 1938 ultimatum issued by Poland that Lithuania was forced to establish diplomatic relations with Poland and thus de facto accept its neighbor’s borders.
The Polish-Lithuanian conflict, however, left worsened relations between the two countries for decades to come.

Guillaume de Challant

Améliorez sa vérifiabilité en les associant par des références.
Guillaume de Challant (né vers 1350 mort après le 12 mars 1431) ecclésiastique valdôtain qui fut évêque de Lausanne de 1406 à 1431.
Guillaume de Challant est le troisième fils Aymon II de Challant, seigneur d’Ussel et de Fénis dans la Vallée d’Aoste, et de Catherine Provana de Leyni et comme son frère cadet le cardinal Antoine de Challant il se consacre à une brillante carrière ecclésiastique.
Guillaume de Challant est abbé commendataire de l’Abbaye Saint-Michel-de-la-Cluse de 1391 à 1408 avant de renoncer à ce bénéfice en faveur de son frère Antoine de Challant. En 1398 il accompagne le comte de Savoie à Paris. Il tient également en commende Saint-Juste de Susa et il est chancelier du comte de Savoie de 1404 à 1406. C’est alors qu’il est nommé évêque de Lausanne sous le nom Guillaume IV par le Pape Benoit XIII lors du consistoire du 13 août 1406. Il prend possession de son siège le 10 octobre suivant et devient de ce fait Prince du Saint-Empire, comte de Vaud et seigneur d’Avenches, Lausanne, Lavaux, Bulle, Lucens, Curtilles et Villarzel. Il est envoyé du comte de Savoie en Piémont et au Montferrat pour traiter avec les souverains de ces domaines en 1406 et 1407. Il participe au Concile de Perpignan en 1409 et au Concile de Constance en 1414-1418.
Il s’autoproclame « Comte de Lausanne » en 1416 en réaction à la nomination d’Amédée VIII de Savoie comme duc de Savoie. Il arbitre le conflit entre le duc de Savoie et l’archevêque de Besançon au sujet de la seigneurie de Cossonay en 1421 et termine la construction du palais épiscopal de Lausanne dit Château de Sainte-Marie. Nommé plénipotentiaire du duc de Savoie par lettre patente du 14 mai 1424 pour régler le différend relatif au comté de Genève avec Jean III de Chalon-Arlay, Prince d’Orange après son union avec Marie d’Orange. Il intervient ensuite comme procureur lors de l’union entre Jeanne de Savoie et Jean-Jacques Paléologue le marquis de Montferrat. Il consacre l’église du prieuré de Ripaille le 10 décembre 1411 et fait une visite pastorale de son diocèse entre 1416 et 1417. Il est le fondateur de la chapelle des Innocents de la cathédrale de Lausanne. Guillaume IV de Challant fut un seigneur ecclésiastique très actif et généreux et il se montre soucieux des intérêts des bourgeois de Lausanne en leur accordant l’usage d’un sceau communal et en encourageant la formation d’une communauté juive. Dans son testament du 12 mars 1431 il lègue à la Chapelle des Innocents la somme de 1 000 florins, ses livres ainsi que les objets sacrés qu’il possédait. Il meurt la même année.


Die missio-Hauskapelle (auch missio-Kapelle) ist ein katholischer Kirchenraum im Haus der Weltkirche, der Zentrale des Internationales Katholisches Missionswerkes (missio) in München. Sie besteht aus der sogenannten Hauskirche und der Sakramentskapelle.

Die Hauskapelle wurde 1988 aus Anlass des 150-jährigen Bestehens des Ludwigs-Missionsvereins eingerichtet. Die Kapelle sollte nach dem Willen des damaligen Präsidenten von missio München, Prälat Heinrich Haug, mit Bildern christlicher afrikanischer Kunst Zeugnis vom neuen Missionsverständnis geben, das die christliche Botschaft mit hohen Werten afrikanischer Kultur verbindet.
Ausgewählt für die Gestaltung wurde das von Pater Claude Boucher begründete Ku-Ngoni Zentrum für Handwerk der Mua Mission in Dedza in Malawi. 16 von dessen Künstlern gestalteten ein reiches Programm von Schnitzkunst für Altar, Baldachin, Ambo, Priestersitz, Altarleuchter, Osterleuchter, Christusbaum, zwei Ahnenbäume (Bildprogramm “Die gottesdienstliche Versammlung im Heiligen Wald) und acht thematische Baumgruppen bzw. Bäume als Wandschmuck sowie die Kapellentür (Außenseite Thema: Alles Leben strömt aus Gott; Innenseite Thema: Alles Leben kehrt heim zu Gott) mit dem Bildprogramm: Der Zyklus des Lebens im heiligen Wald. Für die Sakramentskapelle wurde der Zyklus Das Dorf (gemeint: bewohntes Kulturgebiet im Gegensatz zur unberührten Wildnis) geschaffen mit den Objekten: Die Frau mit dem Kind und dem Maiskorb, Das Maisfeld, Die Feuerstelle und die Vorratshütte.
Baumgruppe der Geburt und Inititiation (links), rechts Beginn der Baumgruppe der Dienste und Ämter
Christus, der Priester, König, Prophet und Arzt
Der Christusbaum
Baumgruppe der Gemeinschaft und Fruchtbarkeit
Kreuzigung Christi
Christus in dem als Opferhütte gestalteten Altar
Der Priestersitz
Christus als Fruchtbringer durch seinen Tod
Ambo, Altarleuchter, Ahnenbäume, im Hintergrund – Die Baumgruppe des Bösen und der Sünde, rechts Zugang zur Sakramentskapelle
Baumgruppe des Bösen und der Sünde, oben das jüngste Gericht
einer der beiden Ahnenbäume
In der Sakramentskapelle: Die Feuerstelle
Das Tabernakel, gestaltet als Vorratshütte; im Hintergrund das Maisfeld.
Die Frau mit dem Kind und dem Maiskorb
Die Baumgruppe des Todes (links), Baum der Auferstehung (rechts)
Auferstehung und Sendung
Ein Gegenstück zur missio-Kapelle existiert mit der ebenfalls vom Ku-Ngoni gestaltete und von missio finanzierten Hauskapelle des Zentralkrankenhauses in Malawis Hauptstadt Lilongwe.
48.13487311.556674Koordinaten: 48° 8′ 6″ N, 11° 33′ 24″ O

Golden Mile, Toronto

The Golden Mile is a commercial district in the Scarborough district of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Situated along Eglinton Avenue East, east of Victoria Park Avenue, it was one of Canada’s first model industrial parks. The original Golden Mile of Industry ran along Eglinton from Pharmacy Avenue east to Birchmount Road.
The area was farmland prior to World War II with settlement by Scottish immigrants beginning in the 1820s (notably by the likes of the McCowans and Thompsons) and prior to settlements by Europeans in the late 18th century was mostly covered by forests.

In the 1940s 250 acres were acquired by the federal government to build munitions plants for Canada’s involvement in World War II. In 1941 General Engineering Company of Ontario (GECO) a massive munitions plant was constructed covering the area northwest of Eglinton and Warden. The facility was located in the area, which was then far from the city, to protect against accidental detonations. At its peak 5,300 people worked at the plant and 256,567,485 munitions were produced over the course of the war. Following the war, the area and 14 buildings was purchased from the federal government by the Township of Scarborough. The township built municipal offices and a library along Eglinton and sold the rest to private industry to develop the area as “The Golden Mile”, patterned after the Golden Mile in London, England. In the 1950s and 1960s, numerous factories producing mostly consumer goods operated along the Golden Mile.
Golden Mile Plaza was added west of the industrial “mile” in 1954 and was visited in 1959 by Queen Elizabeth II marking the further transformation of the area into a series of strip malls.
The original strip mall on the north of Eglinton Avenue was anchored by a Famous Players movie theatre located at Pharmacy Avenue and Eglinton. The west section of the strip was severely damaged by a fire in 1986, which hastened the beginning of the transformation of the area into one of Toronto’s largest concentrations of power centres and big box stores.
List of tenants at Golden Mile Plaza original 1954
Beginning the 1980s and 1990s industry began to disappear along the Golden Mile.
The newer Golden Mile Mall is notably renovating and revamping several aspects of its premise, offering the promise of a fresh face and continuous offering of essential retailers and services for its community. However, earlier in 2008, Fabricland, which is considered a bottom-feeder of strip-malls, also left this location for greener pastures.
Toronto Employment and Social Services, popular retailer Joe Fresh, Fit 4 Less, and a dollar store opened new premises at the Golden Mile Mall in 2010 taking up the space that Zellers and Fabricland had occupied.
This list includes former and current businesses located in the area:
Several provincial government offices are located in the Golden Mile.
Coordinates: 43°43′34″N 79°17′17″W / 43.726°N 79.288°W / 43.726; -79.288

Alice Sapritch

Alice Sapritch en 1985.
Alice Sapritch, de son vrai nom Alice Sapric, née le 29 juillet 1916 à Ortaköy dans l’Empire ottoman et morte le 24 mars 1990 à Paris, est une actrice et chanteuse d’origine arménienne naturalisée française.

Alice Sapritch passe son enfance à Istanbul. La famille Sapric (son vrai nom) connaît de gros problèmes financiers dus aux dettes de jeu de son père. Elle qualifie son enfance de malheureuse. Elle quitte la Turquie avec sa famille à l’âge de 13 ans et poursuit ses études à Bruxelles avant de gagner seule Paris. Elle entre au Cours Simon, puis au Conservatoire. Elle fait ses premiers pas sur scène dans le rôle de la reine Gertrude dans Hamlet de William Shakespeare. Elle montre une certaine aisance à évoluer dans des rôles en costumes.
À la fin de l’Occupation, elle rencontre Guillaume Hanoteau, un des protagonistes de l’assassinat de Robert Denoël, et l’épouse en 1950 (elle divorcera en 1970).
1950 marque ses débuts au cinéma : elle tourne cette année-là Le Tampon du capiston, dont son mari a écrit le scénario. On la retrouvera dans Le Crime du Bouif (1952), puis, aux côtés de Yves Montand, dans Premier mai (1958). Elle enchaîne les petits rôles auprès de Claude Autant-Lara dans Le Joueur, toujours en 1958, Les Scélérats de Robert Hossein en 1959, La Menace de Gérard Oury en 1960, Le testament d’Orphée de Jean Cocteau en 1960, Tirez sur le pianiste de François Truffaut, également en 1960. Les années suivantes sont marquées par des adaptations télévisées de premier plan qu’on aurait bien tort d’oublier : Le chevalier des Touches, d’après Jacques de Lacretelle (1966), Le curé de village, d’après Balzac (1968), ou encore Destins, d’après Mauriac (1965).
Ces téléfilms peuvent être encore vus aujourd’hui sur le site de l’INA. Ils témoignent de son réel talent de comédienne.
À force d’obstination, de petits rôles et de présence au théâtre, le succès arrive en 1971, à l’âge de 55 ans, lorsqu’elle impressionne le public avec deux rôles. Le premier, comique, est le celui de la duègne tentant de séduire le personnage joué par Yves Montand dans le film La Folie des grandeurs (quatrième plus gros succès de Gérard Oury, régulièrement rediffusé à la télévision), une prestation devenue culte grâce au strip-tease qu’elle exécute à la fin du film. Elle y rivalise avec Louis de Funès (déjà croisé dans Sur un arbre perché) et Yves Montand. Le second, celui de Folcoche, la mère indigne qui maltraite ses enfants, qu’elle tient dans le téléfilm Vipère au poing, révèle son talent de tragédienne.
Malgré ces prestations remarquées elle enchaîne dans les années 1970 les rôles dans des comédies qualifiées de nanars. Elle rejoint l’équipe de Michel Gérard, adepte du genre, accompagné de son coscénariste Vincent Gauthier et du duo Michel Galabru et Paul Préboist dans Les Joyeux Lurons en 1972 puis Les Vacanciers en 1974.
Dans Le Führer en folie de Philippe Clair, où l’issue de la Seconde Guerre mondiale se joue lors d’un match de football, elle joue le rôle d’Eva Braun.
Elle continue ensuite avec Gross Paris de Gilles Grangier en 1973, Le Plumard en folie de Jacques Lemoine en 1974 et Drôles de zèbres, unique film réalisé par Guy Lux. Elle continue toutefois, pendant cette période, à interpréter des rôles tragiques au théâtre.
Elle abandonne ce style de comédies à la française à la fin des années 1970 (sauf pour Adam et Eve en 1984) et redore un peu son blason à la fin de sa carrière grâce à son retour à des rôles dramatiques au cinéma comme dans Les Sœurs Brontë d’André Téchiné en 1979 ou à la télévision avec L’Affaire Marie Besnard en 1986 pour lequel elle reçoit un 7 d’or.
Son dernier rôle sera celui de Catherine de Médicis dans un téléfilm du même nom sorti en 1989.
Elle enregistre un album en 1975 (réédité en 2003) et un 45 tours en 1986 : Slowez moi. Elle écrit plusieurs ouvrages autobiographiques (Alice, Mes dîners en ville, Femme-public Ma vérité et Mémoires inachevés) et un roman (Un amour menacé, 1973).
Claude Véga l’imite avec talent. Thierry Le Luron l’imite également beaucoup, ce qu’elle prend assez mal au début. Dans les années 1980 elle participe régulièrement à l’émission radiophonique Les grosses têtes où elle est la cible récurrente des moqueries de ses camarades sur son âge où elle lâche son lancinant et sensuel : “T’occupe !”. Elle fait aussi preuve d’auto-dérision (« Avant, j’étais moche ») en tournant des spots publicitaires pour les produits d’entretien Jex Four.
Alice Sapritch compte parmi ses plus fidèles amis Jean-Louis Bory, lui rendant visite autant qu’il lui est possible alors qu’il se trouve en maison de repos à Montmorency, après la grave dépression qui le conduira à une tentative de suicide[réf. nécessaire].
Elle est également très proche de la communauté arménienne, et participe à de nombreux rassemblements aux côtés de la diaspora.
Elle meurt d’un cancer le 24 mars 1990 à Paris. Elle fut incinérée au cimetière du Père-Lachaise à Paris.
La Nuit des 7 d’or : Meilleure comédienne de fiction pour L’Affaire Marie Besnard en 1986