Tåkelur

En tåkelur, et tåkehorn eller et tåkesignal er et apparat som lager lyd for å advare fartøy om farer når det er fare for skipstrafikken. Uttrykket blir oftest benyttet i forbindelse med sjøtransport.

Tåkesignal er blitt benyttet i forskjellige former i hundrevis av år, i starten bare som klokker som ble slått på manuelt. Tåkeklokker i egne tårn, drevet med urverk som slo på klokken, har også vært benyttet mange plasser i tider da det ellers ble benyttet tåkelurer; i Norge er fem slike tåkeklokker oppbevart og fredet, alle langs fjorder på Østlandet.

Ved noen fyr ble små kanoner avfyrt periodisk for advare skip cheap water bottles, men dette var lite gangbart da en måtte fyre av kanonen gjennom hele perioden som tåken varte, som gjerne kunne være flere dager. Andre steder ble det benyttete dampdrevne fløyter, mens andre igjen avfyrte dynamittladninger.

Gjennom 1800-tallet ble det gjort forsøk på å automatisere singalprosessen. Enkelte steder ble det utviklet et system hvor skytebomull ble avfyrt elektrisk, mens mekaniske klokker ble utviklet andre steder.

Den første automatiske dampdrivne tåkeluren ble oppfunnet av Robert Foulis, en skotte som emigrerte til Saint John i New Brunswick i Canada. Foulis skal visstnok ha hørt datteren spille piano i en tåkete kveld og la merke til at de lave tonene var enklere å høre enn de høyere tonene. Han tegnet så et apparat som produserte lavfrekvent lyd, samt et kodesystem som skulle benyttes sammen med apparatet. Etter flere presentasjoner for styresmaktene i New Brunswick ble tåkeluren til Foulis satt opp på Partridge Island i 1859.

I samme periode fant Celadon Leeds Daboll opp en kuldreven tåkelur som han kalte Daboll-trompeten for det amerikanske fyrvesenet, men dette ble ikke benyttet utenfor USA. Et par Daboll-trumpspeter var i bruk fram til midten av 1900-tallet.

Alle tåkelurer benytter en vibrerende luftsøyle for å skape en tone som en kan høre, men metodene for å skape vibrasjonene varierer. Enkelte horn benytter vibrerende plater eller rørblad av metall på samme måte som i et moderne elektrisk bilhorn. Andre benytter seg av luft som blir presset gjennom hull i en roterende sylinder eller skive, på lignende måte som en sirene. Halvautomatiske tåkelurer benyttet seg av urverk-mekanismer som åpnet ventilene og slapp luft til hornene. Hvert horn hadde sin egen karakter slik at det var mulig å skille de forskjellige fra hverandre.

Fra tidlig på 1900-tallet ble det utviklet et apparat av John Northey fra Toronto som han kalte Diafon. Detlote ble en standard tåkelur for nye installasjoner. Diafonene produserte lyd ved hjelp av komprimert luft og kunne skape ekstremt kraftige lavfrekvente toner. Elektriske tåkelurer blir kalte nautofon.

Etter at fyrene har blitt automatiserte har de fleste tåkelurer blitt fjernet, i alle fall i Norge, og er erstattete av elektriske hjelpemidler som ikke er avhengig av synlig lys. Enkelte steder i utlandet har eldre tåkelurer blitt erstattete av nyere, som aktiverer seg automatisk ved hjelp av optiske siktmålere

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Landeshaus Münster

Das Landeshaus in Münster am Freiherr-vom-Stein-Platz ist Hauptsitz des Landschaftsverbandes Westfalen-Lippe und Tagungsort der Landschaftsversammlung Westfalen-Lippe. Der denkmalgeschützte und stadtbildprägende Bau stammt in seiner heutigen Form im Wesentlichen aus den 1950er Jahren, bezieht aber Teile eines Vorgängerbaues mit ein steak tenderiser.

Zwischen 1896 und 1901 wurde der Vorgängerbau an gleicher Stelle im Stil der Neorenaissance für den Westfälischen Provinzialverband errichtet. Der Bau erfolgte auf einem trapezförmigen Grundstück.

Das Gebäude wurde während des Zweiten Weltkrieges massiv durch Bomben beschädigt und in weiten Teilen zerstört. Unmittelbar nach dem Krieg begann die provisorische Wiederherstellung einiger weniger beschädigter Räumlichkeiten.

Der Entschluss zu einem weitgehend neuen Bau hatte etwas mit der unklaren Situation des Provinzialverbandes nach der Auflösung Preußens und seiner Provinzen 1946 zu tun. Erst mit der Landschaftsverbandsordnung von 1953 war diese Unsicherheit beendet. Insofern war der Bau in der Zwischenzeit auch der Versuch der fortbestehenden Verwaltung und des Landeshauptmannes Bernhard Salzmann Fakten zu schaffen. Das Anknüpfen an die Vergangenheit wurde auch durch die architektonische Orientierung an Grundelementen des Vorgängerbaus betont.

Die Pläne für den Wiederaufbau stammten von dem Architekten Werner March. Dieser hatte zuvor das Olympiastadion in Berlin gebaut. Die Arbeiten begannen 1950 und waren im Wesentlichen 1954 abgeschlossen.

Einige weniger zerstörte Gebäudeteile wurden in die Neuplanung einbezogen. Obwohl der Architekt sich teilweise am Vorgängerbau orientierte, gab es doch sowohl hinsichtlich der äußeren Gestaltung wie auch der Raumaufteilung erhebliche Unterschiede. Die recht konservative Formensprache orientierte sich an Vorstellungen der Heimatschutzarchitektur, wie sie etwa Gustav Wolf vertreten hatte. Dabei wurden historische Bautypen abstrahiert und vereinfacht. Die Tankstelle im Garagenhof orientiert sich an der von March für die Reichsautobahnen entwickelten Tankstellen vom Typ Hannover mit gewissen Anleihen an die Neue Sachlichkeit water bottles free of bpa.

Der Bau wurde aus hellem heimischen Sandstein errichtet. Auffällig sind die hohen rechteckigen Fenster when to tenderize meat, die Walmdächer und der Uhrenturm mit seinem viermal täglich spielenden Glockenspiel an der Fürstenbergstraße. Im Inneren ist der arkadengesäumte und mit einem Glasdach versehene Lichthof bemerkenswert. Die Teile des Baukomplexes gruppieren sich rund um einen parkartigen Innenhof. An diesen grenzt auch der Plenarsaal der Landschaftsversammlung an. Dieser wie auch die davor liegende Bürgerhalle ist vor einigen Jahren grundlegend saniert und modernisiert worden.

Seit 2010 sind Teile des Komplexes in die Denkmalliste der Stadt Münster eingetragen woden. Dazu gehören der Gebäudeflügel an der Fürstenbergstraße 15, der Hauptbau am Freiherr-vom-Stein-Platz mit Vorplatz, der Gebäudeflügel an der Karlstraße 3, der Garagenhof Karlstraße 19-29

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, Freiflächen und eine Statue im Innenhof.

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Corey Pavin

Corey Allen Pavin (born November 16, 1959) is an American professional golfer who has played on the PGA Tour and the Champions Tour. He spent over 150 weeks in the top-10 of the Official World Golf Ranking between 1986 and 1997.

Pavin was born in Oxnard, California, the son of Barbara and Jack Pavin. He attended the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). He won two gold medals at the 1981 Maccabiah Games, the Jewish Olympics in Israel, and turned professional the following year. He quickly established himself in the sport, with three international victories in 1983, and his first PGA Tour victory at the 1984 Houston Coca-Cola Open.

He won at least one event on either the PGA Tour or the international tour nearly every year for the next decade, and topped the PGA Tour’s money list in 1991, when he was the last man to achieve this without winning at least one million dollars in prize money. Pavin’s success culminated in his only major victory, the 1995 U.S. Open. Rather than marking a move to a new level of achievement, however, this was soon followed by a long slide down the world rankings from a high ranking of 5th. After Pavin won the Bank of America Colonial in 1996, he did not win another PGA Tour tournament for ten years. His 89th-place finish on the 2004 money list was the first time he had made the top one hundred since 1998. Pavin finally won his 15th career title in 2006 at the U.S. Bank Championship in Milwaukee, ending a streak of 242 consecutive tournaments without a win.

Pavin played on three Ryder Cup teams: 1991, 1993, and 1995.

In 2002 he was named to the Ventura County Sports Hall of Fame.

On July 27, 2006, during the first round of what would become his 15th tour title, Pavin broke the record for the fewest number of strokes needed to complete nine holes at a PGA Tour event, with an 8-under par score of 26. The previous record of 27 strokes was held by Mike Souchak, Andy North, Billy Mayfair and Robert Gamez

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, with Mayfair and Gamez’ scores being 9-under par. His 36-hole total of 125 also tied the record for fewest shots taken in the first 36 holes of a PGA Tour event held by Tom Lehman electric shaver comparison, Mark Calcavecchia, and Tiger Woods.

Pavin was the only top Jewish player on the tour until 1991. In that year, he converted to Christianity. He was named the 117th-greatest Jewish athlete in the 2007 book The Big Book of Jewish Sports Heroes depiller for clothes, by Peter S. Horvitz.

In December 2008, Pavin was named captain for the 2010 Ryder Cup U.S. team by the PGA of America. In October 2010, the U.S. Ryder Cup team lost 13½ to 14½, against the European side.

Pavin began playing on the Champions Tour in 2010 1 liter bpa free water bottle. In June 2010, he lost in a sudden death playoff to Bubba Watson at the Travelers Championship on the PGA Tour. In his 35th start, Pavin won his maiden Champions Tour event in February 2012 at the Allianz Championship. He defeated Peter Senior at the first sudden death playoff hole with a birdie to take the title, after having finished regulation play at 11 under.

Pavin made a cameo appearance playing himself in the 1996 movie Tin Cup starring Kevin Costner. In the movie, Pavin tells Fred Couples, “I can’t believe that the name below mine on the U.S. Open trophy might be Tin Cup.” Pavin was married to Shannon Healy, with whom he has two children. He married Lisa Nguyen in 2003.

PGA Tour playoff record (5–4)

Champions Tour playoff record (1–1)

DNP = Did not play
CUT = missed the half-way cut
“T” indicates a tie for a place
Green background for wins. Yellow background for top-10.

Amateur

Professional

1967–68 Minnesota Muskies season

The 1967–68 Minnesota Muskies season was the first and only season of the Muskies in the newly created American Basketball Association. The team was created on February 2, 1967 for the price of $30,000 to L.P. Shields and Fred Jefferson. The team was named after a nickname for the Muskellunge, which is a fish found in Minnesota. The team did well on the court, finishing 2nd to the Pipers in the Eastern Division. In the playoffs, they made it to the Division Finals, but the Muskies lost in 5 games to the Pipers. However, this proved to be the only season for the Muskies due to losing money (reportedly $400,000) with middling attendance with minimal season tickets purchased (In the five playoff games played in Minnesota, they averaged 3,511 in attendance, with the highest being 8,357 for Game 3 of the Division Finals and the lowest being 661 for Game 1 of the Semifinals). A plan to play 9 games of next season in places around Minnesota and a television contract were curtailed, and the Muskies moved to Miami on May 24, 1968

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. However, basketball in Minnesota would not be curtailed for long, as the Pittsburgh Pipers moved to play in the same location

Eastern Division Semifinals

Muskies win series 3–2

Division Finals

Muskies lose series, 4–1

1968 ABA All-Star Game selections (game played on January 9

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, 1968)

Jim Pollard was selected to coach the Eastern squad

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Brecha sísmica

Una brecha sísmica, a veces también denominada laguna sísmica, es una zona de quiescencia en un borde convergente entre placas tectónicas en la que, a pesar de tener una historia de sismicidad conocida, no se han producido terremotos ni ha presentado actividad sísmica relevante en los últimos treinta años. Otras definiciones no precisan un número absoluto de años de inactividad, poniendo como criterio que se supere el promedio de los intervalos de ocurrencia conocidos para ese segmento en la región.

El concepto en sí es complejo, puesto que la existencia de brechas sísmicas implica de algún modo otro concepto, el de «sismo característico»”; no existe el uno sin el otro:

What are characteristic earthquakes? The “Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities” gives the following brief definition of the characteristic earthquake hypothesis: “A fault segment is said to have a characteristic earthquake if it repeatedly slips in earthquakes of similar magnitude and if those earthquakes dominate the stress release for that segment”

¿Qué son los terremotos característicos? El Grupo de Trabajo sobre Probabilidades de Terremoto en California entrega la siguiente definición breve de la hipótesis de terremotos característicos: «Se dice que un segmento de falla tiene un terremoto característico si se desliza en terremotos de magnitud similar en repetidas ocasiones y si esos terremotos logran la liberación del estrés para ese segmento»

Algunos expertos han hecho además una distinción entre dos tipos diferentes de brechas sísmicas

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, intentando aclarar así las confusiones que genera el concepto. Un tipo se referiría a una laguna o hueco en la distribución espacial de las zonas de ruptura de los terremotos más grandes en un cinturón sísmico definido

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. Esta clase de brecha no solo se identificaría por los sismos a lo largo de los límites de las placas tectónicas, sino que también podrían definirse por sismos menores intraplaca

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. Otro tipo de brecha sería la que se define por los huecos en una secuencia de sismos que preceden a un gran terremoto. Esta segunda clase de brecha se denomina a veces «brecha premonitora» por el valor «predictivo» (más precisamente, de pronóstico) que se le asigna.

Más en general, un asunto es la definición (“lo que es” una brecha sísmica) y otra cosa son sus supuestas implicancias. Respecto de esto último se habla de «hipótesis de brecha sísmica» (seismic gap hipotesis) y se distinguen principalmente dos:

Un supuesto central de la “nueva” hipótesis es que la mayor parte del desplazamiento de una zona de ruptura ocurre en grandes sismos que la afectan en toda su extensión (cuestión que, según se ha comentado profusamente a raíz del terremoto de Iquique de 2014, pareciera no cumplirse en el caso del Norte Grande chileno).

En el Cinturón de Fuego del Pacífico se concentra cerca del 90% de la actividad sísmica del planeta y existen suficientes registros históricos que permiten definir las zonas que durante mucho tiempo no se han activado. Algunos ejemplos son los siguientes: