UEFA Europa League kvalifikationsfase og playoffrunde 2014-15

UEFA Europa League kvalifikationsfase og playoffrunde 2014-15 er kvalifikationsrunderne og playoffrunden til gruppespillet i UEFA Europa League 2014-15.

Alle lodtrækninger fandt sted i UEFA’s hovedkvarter i Nyon, Schweiz.

En total på 78 hold spillede i første kvalifikationsrunde. Lodtrækningen fandt sted den 23. juni 2014. (Note: Nummeret til hvert hold var forudbestemt af UEFA, sådan at lodtrækningen kunne finde sted for alle grupper med ti hold på én gang, samt en anden omgang med grupperne med tolv hold.)

Spartak Trnava (2)
Inter Baku (1)
Koper (4)
Čukarički (3)
Flamurtari Vlorë (5)

Tiraspol (7)
Sant Julià (6)
Sioni Bolnisi (9)
Hibernians (8)
Čelik Nikšić (10)

Shakhter Karagandy (1)
Široki Brijeg (2)
Birkirkara (3)
Vaduz (4)
Chikhura Sachkhere (5)

Diósgyőr (6)
Shirak (7)
Gabala (8)
Turnovo (9)
College Europa (10)

Litex Lovech (5)
RNK Split (4)
Budućnost Podgorica (3)
Kukësi (2)
Metalurg Skopje (1)

Veris Chișinău (9)
Mika (10)
Kairat (8)
UE Santa Coloma (7)
Folgore (6)

Željezničar (3)
Pyunik (2)
Botev Plovdiv (1)
Zimbru Chișinău (4)
Ferencváros (6)
Rudar Velenje (5)

Shkëndija (9)
Sliema Wanderers (8)
Astana (7)
Laçi (11)
Lovćen Cetinje (10)
Libertas (12)

Rosenborg (2)
Differdange 03 (1)
Linfield (4)
Brommapojkarna (3)
Nõmme Kalju (6)
Derry City (5)

Fram Reykjavík (8)
Jelgava (7)
VPS (10)
B36 Tórshavn (9)
Atlantas (12)
Aberystwyth Town (11)

Tromsø (3)
Ekranas (4)
Aberdeen (1)
Bangor City (6)
MYPA (5)
Jeunesse Esch (2)

Crusaders (9)
Dundalk (7)
Stjarnan (8)
Daugava Rīga (12)
ÍF (11)
Santos Tartu (10)

FH (1)
IFK Göteborg (2)
Honka (3)
Sligo Rovers (4)
Haugesund (5)
Daugava Daugavpils (6)

Fola Esch (7)
Víkingur Gøta (8)
Banga Gargždai (9)
Sillamäe Kalev (10)
Airbus UK Broughton (11)
Glenavon (12)

Første runde blev spillet den 1. og 3. juli, mens returkampene blev spillet den 8. 10. og 11. juli 2014.

v Inter Baku

Linfield vandt 3–2 samlet.

Shakhter Karagandy vandt 6–1 samlet.

Astana vandt 6–1 samlet.

RNK Split vandt 3–1 samlet.

2–2 samlet. Laçi vandt 3–2 efter straffesparkskonkurrence.

Víkingur Gøta vandt 3–2 samlet.

Budućnost Podgorica vandt 5–1 samlet.

Željezničar vandt 1–0 samlet.

Crusaders vandt 5–2 samlet.

4–4 samlet. Sillamäe Kalev vandt på reglen om udebanemål.

Inter Baku vandt 6–3 samlet.

Čukarički vandt 4–0 samlet.

Chikhura Sachkhere vandt 4–1 samlet.

Atlantas vandt 3–2 samlet.

Nõmme Kalju vandt 3–2 samlet.

Rosenborg vandt 6–0 samlet.

Haugesund vandt 3–2 samlet.

Aberdeen vandt 8–0 samlet.

4–4 samlet. Flamurtari Vlorë vandt på reglen om udebanemål.

Zimbru Chișinău vandt 3–2 samlet.

Brommapojkarna vandt 3–2 samlet.

Tromsø vandt 13–1 samlet.

IFK Göteborg vandt 2–0 samlet.

Spartak Trnava vandt 9–2 samlet.

Diósgyőr vandt 6–2 samlet.

Kairat vandt 1–0 samlet.

Derry City vandt 9–0 samlet.

Stjarnan vandt 8–0 samlet.

Vaduz vandt 4–0 samlet.

MYPA vandt 1–0 samlet.

Sligo Rovers vandt 4–0 samlet.

Koper vandt 9–0 samlet.

Široki Brijeg vandt 5–0 samlet.

Botev Plovdiv vandt 6–0 samlet.

Ferencváros vandt 3–2 samlet.

Metalurg Skopje vandt 5–0 samlet.

Dundalk vandt 5–1 samlet.

FH vandt 6–2 samlet.

Litex Lovech vandt 3–0 samlet.

De første kampe blev spillet den 17. juli, mens returkampene blev spillet den 22. og 24. juli 2014.

2–2 samlet. Metalurg Skopje vandt på reglen om udebanemål.

Shakhter Karagandy vandt 3–0 samlet.

RNK Split vandt 2–1 samlet.

Dinamo Minsk vandt 3–0 samlet.

Omonia vandt 2–0 samlet.

Sarajevo vandt 3–2 samlet.

Krasnodar vandt 9–0 samlet

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.

1–1 samlet. Elfsborg vandt 4–3 efter straffesparkskonkurrence.

IFK Göteborg vandt 3–1 samlet.

Lech Poznań vandt 3–1 samlet.

Slovan Liberec vandt 4–0 samlet.

Víkingur Gøta vandt 2–1 samlet.

Petrolul Ploiești vandt 5–1 samlet.

Grödig vandt 5–2 samlet.

0–0 samlet. Chikhura Sachkhere vandt 4–1 efter straffesparkskonkurrence.

AIK vandt 2–1 samlet.

1–1 samlet. Zimbru Chișinău vandt på reglen om udebanemål.

Shakhtyor Salihorsk vandt 6–1 samlet.

Ruch Chorzów vandt 3–2 samlet.

Astana vandt 3–1 samlet.

Esbjerg vandt 2–1 samlet.

Spartak Trnava vandt 3–0 samlet.

Aberdeen vandt 2–1 samlet.

I легион Освободитель Макра

68 год – 69 год

Древний Рим

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Луций Клодий Макр

I легион Освободитель Макра (лат. Legio I Macriana Liberatrix) — легион, сформированный Луцием Клодием Макром в 68 году в северной Африке для участия в восстании против Нерона. После смерти Макра, в 69 году, был распущен Гальбой.

Легион был сформирован в 68 году, когда легат III Августова легиона Луций Клодий Макр поднял в Северной Африке восстание против Нерона и объявил себя правителем независимого от Рима царства.

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, которые давали войскам под своим командованием свою собственную нумерацию, не принимающую в расчёт их положение в римской армии в целом, он назвал его Legio I Macriana Liberatrix.

Считалось, что в новый легион вошли части III Августова легиона football fan shirts, однако, это не так, поскольку III Августов легион в это же время действовал как самостоятельная единица.

В 69 году, после убийства Макра по приказу Гальбы прокуратором Требонием Гарутианом, легион был распущен, так и не успев принять участие в боях.

В том же году, но позже, Вителлий, которому были нужны войска в Африке и поддержка против Веспасиана, вновь собрал войска расформированного легиона, и влил его в уже существующие кадровые части.

Valérand Poullain

Valérand Poullain (Pollanus, Pullanus) (1509?-1557) was a French Calvinist minister. In a troubled career as minister

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, he was pastor to a congregation of Flemish or Walloon weavers brought to South-west England around 1548.

He was originally from Lille. He was willing to replace the martyred Pierre Brully at the Strasburg church, in 1544-5. But there was local opposition from other local reformers, who found him unreasonable, notably Johannes Sturm. Poullain failed to gain the position from a short-list of five, all of whom were required to preach in front of a committee including Sturm, Immanuel Tremellius, and Peter Martyr, supported by Martin Bucer and others. He shortly left the city for a teaching position at Romberg, being succeeded as pastor by Pierre Alexandre and then shortly by Jean Garnier.

Poullain owed his invitation to England to Jan Utenhove. He was in Canterbury, working with a French refugee congregation, around 1547. The weavers he brought occupied the building of the dissolved Glastonbury Abbey from 1551 to 1554, initially under the auspices of Lord Protector Somerset, and using a Protestant liturgy of Poullain’s devising. Poullain was probably an influence on the liturgy in the Book of Common Prayer of Edward VI. After the accession of Mary I of England Poullain left England with some 24 of his weavers

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, going to Wesel, and then Frankfurt. He became acquainted with John Foxe there; but a move to Basel led to his appearance before a matrimonial court in a case concerning his disputed betrothal.

Later, in 1556, Poullain was in charge of a quarrelsome French refugee congregation at Frankfurt. Jean Calvin himself had to intervene: Poullain was cleared of allegations against him, but had to resign his position, and Calvin questioned his judgement.

Japanese community of Düsseldorf

There is a Japanese community in Düsseldorf, Germany. In 2008 the Consulate-General of Japan in Düsseldorf (German: Japanisches Generalkonsulat Düsseldorf, Japanese: 在デュッセルドルフ日本国総領事館) stated that about 11,000 Japanese, including both permanent and temporary residents and German-born citizens of Japanese ancestry live in Düsseldorf. Since the 1950s Düsseldorf has hosted over 500 Japanese companies.

In 1985 the general manager of the Japanese Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Düsseldorf, Akira Arikawa

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, stated that of all of the cities in the world outside Japan, Düsseldorf had the highest concentration of Japanese residents.

In 1950 there was one Japanese person registered as living in Düsseldorf. Beginning in the mid-1950s the Japanese companies returning to Germany in the post-World War II period were mostly settling in Düsseldorf, while in the pre-World War II period the Japanese population was concentrated in Hamburg. Arikawa stated that the Japanese settlement began when ten businesspersons from Tokyo, trying to buy metal ore and machinery for Japan, established their businesses in Düsseldorf. Due to this settlement, information about the Ruhr region circulated within Japanese companies. 300 Japanese were registered as living in the city by 1960

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. The Japanese Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1966. There were 100 Japanese companies in the Düsseldorf area in 1968.

Due to Düsseldorf’s central location within Europe and proximity to other areas in Europe, its location in the Ruhr industrial area, and the proximity to the seaport Duisburg, Japanese companies had a preference for Düsseldorf as they established European operations in the 1970s. By 1973 2,000 Japanese were registered as living in Düsseldorf and 200 Japanese companies were located in the area. By 1980 the number of Japanese companies had increased to 300

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. In the northern hemisphere spring of 1985, Japan Airlines started a flight from Tokyo to Düsseldorf on a twice weekly basis. As of 1985 there were 6,000 Japanese residents. In 1990 there were 30 Japanese production facilities in the city. By 1992, 7,443 Japanese were registered as living in the city.

Due to the reunification of Germany making Berlin the capital of the country, the decline in the Japanese economy, and the European Single Market causing Japanese companies to move to places with lower costs

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, since 1992 there had been a decline in the Japanese community. Many of the Japanese companies had shifted to the Netherlands. In the late 1990s the Düsseldorf area housed 520 Japanese companies. In 1999 about 4,500 Japanese people lived in and around Düsseldorf. By the late 1990s there were almost no Japanese production facilities in Düsseldorf, or in all of Germany. Due to the infrastructure and support from the Japanese community, including the Japanese school and the Buddhist centre, many companies that had moved out of Düsseldorf in the early 1990s, especially those that had moved to Berlin, began moving back to Düsseldorf by the late 1990s.

In 2001 Harold Kerbo and Patrick Ziltener, authors of the article “Japanese Business in Germany,” wrote that “Dusseldorf remains the center for Japanese business activity in Germany.”

As of 1985 Immermann Street had a concentration of Japanese businesses. In 1985 Mark Heinrich of the Associated Press (AP) stated that the Hotel Nikko Düsseldorf on Immermann Street was the center of the Japanese community. Japan Airlines established the hotel in 1978. The Japanische Internationale Schule in Düsseldorf is located in Niederkassel, and it previously had a campus in Oberkassel.

In 1977 a weekly Japanese newspaper was established. Düsseldorf resident Tsunejiro Takagi was the publisher of Life in Europe, which was Europe’s first Japanese language newspaper and as of 1985 had a circulation of 6,000. Its coverage included European Economic Community (EEC) developments, consumer news, a column on Japanese company representatives, area Japanese sports, and travel news.

As of 1985 300 Japanese multinational companies operated in the Düsseldorf area and had invested over $600 million U.S. dollars in that area. As of that year, the multinationals included Mitsubishi and Nippon Steel.

As of 1985 over 90% of ethnic Japanese households in West Germany had an affluent corporate executive as the head of the household. This executive often stays in Germany for three to five years.

As of 1985 company employees arriving in Germany often move into residences formerly occupied by those returning to Japan.

Eric Zielke, a professor at University of Düsseldorf, stated around 1985 that Japanese often only interact with Germans when doing and being involved with business. He concluded that “the Japanese have no particular interest in becoming integrated into German society” because many are in Germany for only a three to five-year period, and that “The Japanese form a colony, remaining unobtrusive and keeping to themselves.”

The Japanische Internationale Schule in Düsseldorf, a Japanese international school, is in Düsseldorf. It opened in 1971 and gained a permanent building in 1973. In 1985 the school had 880 students. The Japanische Ergänzungsschule in Düsseldorf (デュッセルドルフ日本語補習校 Dyuserudorufu Nihongo Hoshūkō), a Japanese weekend school, is a part of the institution.

The Consulate-General of Japan, Düsseldorf is located in the city.

The Japan Day in Düsseldorf is held annually.