Laser-guided bomb

A laser-guided bomb (LGB) is a guided bomb that uses semi-active laser guidance to strike a designated target with greater accuracy than an unguided bomb. First developed by the United States during the Vietnam War, laser-guided bombs quickly proved their value in precision strikes of difficult point targets. These weapons use on-board electronics to track targets that are designated by laser, typically in the infrared spectrum, and adjust their glide path to precisely strike the target

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. Since the weapon is tracking a light signature, not the object itself, the target must be illuminated from a separate source, either by ground forces, by a pod on the attacking aircraft, or by a separate support aircraft.

Data from Vietnam showed that laser-guided bombs achieved direct hits nearly 50% of the time, versus just 5.5% for unguided bombs. Because of this dramatically higher precision, laser-guided munitions can carry less explosive and cause less collateral damage than unguided munitions. Today, laser-guided bombs are one of the most common and widespread guided bombs, used by a large number of the world’s air forces.

Laser-guided weapons were first developed in the United States and United Kingdom in the early 1960s. The United States Air Force issued the first development contracts in 1964, leading to the development of the Paveway series, which was used operationally in Vietnam starting in 1968. Although there were a variety of technical and operational problems, the results were generally positive. LGBs proved to offer a much higher degree of accuracy than unguided weapons, but without the expense, complexity, and limitations of guided air-to-ground missiles like the AGM-12 Bullpup. The LGB proved particularly effective against difficult fixed targets like bridges, which previously had required huge loads of “dumb” ordnance to destroy.

It was determined that 48% of Paveways dropped during 1972–73 around Hanoi and Haiphong achieved direct hits, compared with only 5.5% of unguided bombs dropped on the same area a few years earlier. The average Paveway landed within 23 feet of its target, as opposed to 447 feet for gravity bombs. The leap in accuracy brought about primarily by laser guidance made it possible to take out heavily defended, point objectives that had eluded earlier air raids.

The most dramatic example was the Thanh Hoa Bridge, 70 miles south of Hanoi, a critical crossing point over the Red River. Starting in 1965, U.S. pilots had flown 871 sorties against it, losing 11 planes without managing to put it out of commission. In 1972 the “Dragon’s Jaw” bridge was attacked with Paveway bombs, and 14 jets managed to do what the previous 871 had not: drop the span, and cut a critical North Vietnamese supply artery.

In the wake of this success, other nations, specifically the Soviet Union pink football socks youth, France, and Great Britain, began developing similar weapons in the late 1960s and early 1970s, while US weapons were refined based on combat experience.

In October 2010, India developed its first Sudarshan laser-guided bomb with the help of IRDE, a lab of DRDO. This is a part of ongoing research to achieve self-dependency in defense area.

The United States Air Force and other air forces are now seeking to upgrade their LGBs with GPS guidance as a back-up. These weapons

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, such as the USAF Enhanced Guided Bomb Unit (part of the Paveway family), use laser designation for precision attacks, but contain an inertial navigation system with GPS receiver for back-up, so that if the target illumination is lost or broken, the weapon will continue to home in on the GPS coordinates of the original target.

Karl G. Taylor Sr.

Karl Gorman Taylor Sr. (July 14, 1939 – December 8, 1968) was a United States Marine Corps staff sergeant who was killed in action during his second tour of duty in the Vietnam War. He was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor, the nation’s highest military decoration for valor, for his heroic actions on December 8, 1968.

Karl Taylor was born on July 14, 1939 in Laurel, Maryland. He graduated from Arundel Junior High School in 1953, then attended Arundel Senior High School until 1956. After leaving high school, he was employed by a construction company as a Tournapull-Scraper Operator. In 1961, he received a high school equivalency diploma from the Armed Forces Institute in Madison, Wisconsin.

He enlisted in the United States Marine Corps along with his brother, Walter William Taylor, at Recruiting Station Baltimore on January 15, 1959. Upon completion of recruit training with the 3rd Recruit Training Battalion at Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island, he went on to infantry combat training with the 1st Infantry Training Regiment, Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. After completing infantry training in July 1959, he was assigned duty as a rifleman, section leader, and a platoon guide, successively, with Company A, 1st Battalion 6th Marines, 2nd Marine Division. He was promoted to private first class on July 1, 1959; to lance corporal on March 1, 1960; and to corporal on October 24, 1960. From January until February 1962, he attended the Drill Instructor School at Parris Island, then served as a Drill Instructor at 2nd Recruit Training Battalion until January 1963.

After this enlistment tour was over, Cpl. Taylor returned to inactive duty for three months and was with the 4th Marine Corps Reserve and Recruitment District at Philadelphia. On March 26, 1963, he returned to active duty at Marine Corps Base Quantico, and served as Assistant Police Sergeant and, later, Police Sergeant, Guard Company, Service Battalion, Marine Corps Schools. He was promoted to sergeant on December 1, 1963.

He was transferred to the 3rd Marine Division, in August 1964. Sgt. Taylor saw a one-year tour of duty as rocket section leader and platoon guide, with Company G, 2nd Battalion 3rd Marines which included duty in South Vietnam. Reassigned to Sub Unit #2, Headquarters Company, Headquarters and Service Battalion, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, in August 1965, he served as an instructor for the NCO Leadership School until the following November.

In January 1966, he returned to the United States and to Marine Corps Schools, Quantico, for duty as Candidate Company Platoon Sergeant and Platoon Sergeant of Company A, 2nd Platoon, Officer Candidate School. He was promoted to staff sergeant on September 1, 1966. In February 1968, he returned to the 3rd Marine Division in Vietnam, this time for duty as Platoon Sergeant and Company Gunnery Sergeant of Company I, 3rd Battalion, 26th Marine Regiment.

Staff Sgt. Taylor was mortally wounded while participating in Operation Meade River on December 8, 1968, as he was charging an enemy machine gun bunker with a grenade launcher to allow his rifle company platoon members to rescue wounded Marines. He was able to take out the enemy position just before he was killed. He was awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously for his heroic actions that day.

In a White House ceremony on February 16, 1971, President Richard Nixon presented Staff Sgt. Taylor’s Medal of Honor to his family — his wife, daughter, age 8, and two sons, age 7 and 4

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.

Staff Sgt. Taylor is buried in Independence Cemetery at Independence Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania.

Taylor’s military decorations and awards include:

The President of the United States in the name of the Congress takes pride in presenting the MEDAL OF HONOR posthumously to

STAFF SERGEANT KARL G. TAYLOR
UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS

for service as set forth in the following CITATION:

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a Company Gunnery Sergeant during Operation MEADE RIVER in the Republic of Vietnam on the night of 8 December 1968. Informed that the commander of the lead platoon had been mortally wounded when his unit was pinned down by a heavy volume of enemy fire, Staff Sergeant Taylor along with another Marine, crawled forward to the beleaguered unit through a hail of hostile fire, shouted encouragement and instructions to the men, and deployed them to covered positions. With his companion, he then repeatedly maneuvered across an open area to rescue those Marines who were too seriously wounded to move by themselves. Upon learning that there were still other seriously wounded men lying in another open area, in proximity to an enemy machine gun position, Staff Sergeant Taylor, accompanied by four comrades, led his men forward across the fire-swept terrain in an attempt to rescue the Marines. When his group was halted by devastating fire, he directed his companion to return to the company command post; whereupon he took his grenade launcher and, in full view of the enemy, charged across the open rice paddy toward the machine gun position, firing his weapon as he ran. Although wounded several times, he succeeded in reaching the machine gun bunker and silencing the fire from that sector, moments before he was mortally wounded. Directly instrumental in saving the lives of several of his fellow Marines, Staff Sergeant Taylor, by his indomitable courage, inspiring leadership, and selfless dedication, upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the United States Naval Service.

/S/ RICHARD M. NIXON

Taylor’s son Kevin enlisted in the Marine Corps in 1984. In 1997, he was with the Construction Equipment Repair Branch, MCB Quantico, Virginia.

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Filmfare Award 1966

Der 13. Filmfare Award wurde am Anfang des Jahres verliehen. Bei dieser Verleihung gibt 15 verschiedene Kategorien. Nur bei den Beliebtheitspreisen gibt es mehrere Nominierungen. Die Filmfare Awards Bester Playbacksänger und Beste Playbacksängerin waren damals nur eine Kategorie, deswegen hat Mohammed Rafi diesen Preis nicht gewonnen.

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;| 1969 | 1970 | 1971&nbsp

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