Partido Republicano Paulista

El Partido Republicano Paulista (PRP) fue un partido político brasileño fundado el 18 de abril de 1873, durante la Convención de Itu, que fue el primer movimiento republicano moderno en Brasil. Sus adeptos eran llamados perrepistas y fue el partido político predominante en el Estado de São Paulo durante toda la República Velha. El PRP se disolvió el 2 de diciembre de 1937. Junto con el Partido Conservador y el Partido Liberal, es uno de los partidos de más larga duración de la Historia de Brasil.

El PRP fue un partido republicano con existencia legal, aún en la fase del Imperio del Brasil, fundado durante la convención de Itu, el 18 de abril de 1873. Fue el Partido Republicano Paulista (PRP) el resultado de la fusión política producida entre fazendeiros del Club Republicano o Radical, entre los que destacaban Américo Brasiliense, Luís Gamma, Américo de Campos y Bernardino José de Campos, Prudente de Morais, Campos Sales, Francisco Glicério, Júlio de Mezquita y Jorge Tibiriçá Piratininga, su primer presidente. En esta primera convención partidaria, comparecieron 124 delegados de diversas ciudades de la provincia paulista.

El PRP, en el período imperial, llegó a elegir diputados para la Asamblea General del Imperio (la actual Cámara de los Diputados), Campos Sales y Prudente de Morales, en la legislatura 1885-1888. En 1887, Bernardino José de Campos colocó al partido en la línea abolicionista best water bottles to buy, sacándolo de la crisis en que hubo caído por la propensión esclavista de los propietarios de tierras.

Su órgano oficial era el periódico “Correo Paulistano”, el cual, en el segundo reinado, perteneció al antiguo Partido Conservador, y fue empastelado (destruido), en 1930, con motivo del triunfo de la Revolución de 1930, sin embargo volvió a circular, y, finalmente concluyó sus actividades en la década de 1960.​ Otros periódicos que apoyaron al PRP fueron también cerrados en 1930, entre ellos: “La Platéia”, “La Gazeta” y la “Hoja de la Mañana”, la actual Folha de S. Paulo.

Sus cuadros se componían de profesionales liberales (abogados, médicos, ingenieros etc.), las llamadas clases liberales, y, sobre todo, por importantes propietarios rurales paulistas, cafeicultores, las llamadas clases conservadoras, partidarias de la inmigración de mano-de-obra europea para las lavouras de café y, también, partidarios de la abolición de los esclavos.

Casi toda la cúpula del PRP, en la época se decía “próceres”, eran miembros de la masonería.​ Eran tradicionales los encuentros de los próceres del PRP en la redacción del Correo Paulistano.

Su primer periódico fue lo “La Provincia de S. Paulo”, hoy El Estado de S. Paulo, fundado, en 1875, por los republicanos históricos, entre ellos, Campos Sales.

El objetivo primordial del PRP era implantar en Brasil una federación republicana, con un alto grado de descentralización administrativa, lo que no existió durante el periodo imperial (1822-1889).

Otra importante reivindicación de los republicanos era lo retorno de los impuestos recaudados por la unión a la provincia (después estados) de origen.

El PRP vivió, en la oposición, de su fundación, en 1873, hasta la Proclamación de la República. Volvió, después de la Revolución de 1930, a ser un partido de oposición. Permaneciendo en la oposición de 1930 hasta su extinción, con la llegada del Estado Nuevo, el 2 de diciembre de 1937 natural meat tenderizer.

Con la Proclamación de la República, el 15 de noviembre de 1889, se inició un nuevo ciclo de poder político en Brasil, llamado la República Velha. La República Velha podemos dividirla en dos períodos. Inicialmente se instaló la denominada República de la Espada, con los gobiernos militares del mariscal Deodoro da Fonseca y el mariscal Floriano Peixoto, consolidando el régimen republicano en Brasil. Tras la salida de los militares del poder federal, tuvo origen la República del café con leche o República Velha, cuando el país fue gobernado por presidentes civiles fuertemente influenciados por el sector agrario de la economía.

El PRP, a través de su principal líder e ideólogo, Campos Sales, con su “Política de los Estados”, que era más conocida como Política de los Gobernadores, fue el partido político que tuvo importancia decisiva en el alejamiento de los militares de la política en el inicio de la República. Así definió Campos Sales la política del café con leche y la política de los estados:

Se nos achássemos em condições normais de vida política, com partidos políticos bem assinalados entre si, obedecendo cada um à autoridade de seus chefes legítimos…conservar-me-ia em posição neutra para oferecer aos contendores todas as garantias eleitorais, mas bem diversa é a situação da república… e é preciso evitar, com decidido empenho, as agitações sem base no interesse nacional que não serviriam senão para levar à arena política as ambições perturbadoras que tem sido e serão sempre os eternos embaraços a proficuidade da ação administrativa….(e explica a necessidade de um vice-presidente mineiro para Rodrigues Alves)..Tenho motivos para acreditar que Minas só aceitará a combinação que também entrar um mineiro e para evitar embaraços julgo conveniente indicar Silviano Brandão para vice presidente!

Neste regime, disse eu na minha última mensagem, a verdadeira força política, que no apertado unitarismo do Império residia no poder central, deslocou-se para os Estados. A Política dos Estados, isto é, a política que fortifica os vínculos de harmonia entre os Estados e a União é, pois, na sua essência, a política nacional. É lá, na soma destas unidades autônomas, que se encontra a verdadeira soberania da opinião. O que pensam os Estados pensa a União!

El poder político federal, en la República del Café con Leche, tenía su gobernabilidad garantizada por la Política de los Estados. Los diputados y senadores federales no confundían la política del presidente, el cual no interfería en los gobiernos provinciales. Estaba garantizada a los estados una amplia autonomía administrativa y el poder federal no interfería en la política interna de los estados, ni los gobiernos provinciales interferían en la política de los municipios, garantizándose la autonomía política y la tranquilidad nacional.

El Presidente de la República apoyaba los actos de los presidentes provinciales, como la elección de los sucesores de esos presidentes de estados, y, en cambio, los gobernadores daban apoyo y soporte político al gobierno federal, colaborando con la elección de candidatos para el Senado Federal y para la Cámara de los Diputados, que dieran total apoyo al Presidente de la República. Así las bancadas de los estados en el Senado Federal y en la Cámara de los Diputados no ofrecían obstáculos al presidente de la República, el cual conducía libremente su gobierno.

Cada estado de la federación brasileña tenía su Partido Republicano, pero no tenían conexión entre sí y eran autónomos. Se repartían el poder federal representantes del Partido Republicano Paulista y del Partido Republicano Minero (PRM), que controlaban las elecciones y gozaban del apoyo de la élite agraria, en la época llamada con el eufemismo de clases conservadoras. Con el nuevo régimen republicano, el PRP deja de ser un partido de clase social y de oposición, como lo fue durante el segundo reinado, cuando, de hecho, era un vehículo de las exigencias políticas de los grandes cafeicultores abolicionistas que utilizaban la mano de obra asalariada europea. Con la República, el partido se hace también una institución dedicada a la burocracia estatal, con la necesidad de que las esferas de gobierno provincial y municipal obedecieran a las determinaciones de la cúpula dirigente del PRP. El PRP, entonces, ascendiendo al poder con la república, coloca en práctica su programa político de descentralización administrativa, creación de escuelas, defensa del café y modernización del estado y de la economía y separa a la Iglesia Católica del estado brasileño.

El PRP sólo tenía existencia legal dentro del territorio paulista y con la extinción de los Partidos Conservador y Liberal después de la proclamación de la república, pasó a ser, prácticamente, el único partido político existente en el estado de São Paulo. Algunos partidos políticos tuvieron existencia efímera en el estado de São Paulo en el inicio de la República. El PRP elegía todos los presidentes de São Paulo y todos los senadores y diputados provinciales. El PRP enfrentó una frágil competencia del Partido Republicano Federal (PRF) de Francisco Glicério de ideología municipalista y del Partido Republicano Conservador (PRC).

Cupo a Campos Sales, cuando fue presidente del Estado de São Paulo, entre 1897 y 1898, reducir la influencia del PRF y el municipalismo, presionando a los coroneles del interior del estado a adherirse al PRP. En pago del apoyo al PRP y al presidente del estado, los coroneles tendrían su poder local garantizado y respetado. Esta actitud de Campos Sales en el gobierno de São Paulo, fue como un embrión del que, después, él haría a nivel nacional: la Política de los Estados o Política de los gobernadores. Uno de los líderes del interior de São Paulo que adhirieron al PRP, a causa de la política de Campos Sales, y que después se hizo un importante líder (prócer) del PRP, fue el Washington Luís.

El PRP fue influenciado mucho por los ideales de la masonería y por el positivismo, habiendo tenido, el PRP, verdadera obsesión por la inmigración europea. En nivel municipal había disputas políticas, cuando más de un coronel disputaba el poder local. En estos casos, políticos de la capital entonces se dividían, apoyando uno u otro coronel para los cargos municipales. En las pequeñas ciudades del interior de São Paulo, el líder local del PRP era el tipo del Coronel, en general el líder de la logia local. A veces, dos o más coroneles disputaban el control de PRP local, pero siempre había un candidato único a la presidencia del estado. Los coroneles apoyaban la política de los presidentes de los estados siempre que estos respetasen el poder local del coronel. Hubo por lo menos 4 disidencias dentro del PRP, comandadas por políticos descontentos con la cúpula del PRP y que fueron preteridos en la elección de los candidatos del PRP a la presidencia del Estado u otros cargos importantes. La última disidencia se saldó con la creación del Partido Democrático, en febrero de 1926, partido este que apoyó la Revolución de 1930. Esa última disidencia del PRP se originó en la crisis ocurrida en la masonería paulista, teniendo el gran maestre del Grande Oriente de São Paulo, José Adriano Marrey Júnior, y fundador el Partido Democrático, la última palabra.

La primera gran disputa electoral entre estos PRP y Partido Democrático se dio, en 1928, por el ayuntamiento de la ciudad de São Paulo a través del voto directo, cuando el PRP salió ampliamente victorioso, reeligiendo el alcalde José Pires del Río. El ataque más serio al poder de PRP fue la Revuelta Paulista de 1924, que hizo que el presidente Carlos de Campos se retirara hacia el interior del estado y organizara batallones en defensa de la legalidad, consiguiendo retomar el poder. Muchos miembros importantes del PRP vistieron fardas de la Fuerza Pública de São Paulo, actual Policía Militar del Estado de São Paulo, y organizaron y comandaron la resistencia contra los revoltosos.

El PRP eligió todos los presidentes del Estado de São Paulo en la República Velha y, además, a seis presidentes de la República, aunque dos de ellos no tomaron posesión: Rodrigues Alves, cuando fue reelegido en 1918 y no llegó a tomar posesión por haber fallecido; y Júlio Prestes, a causa de la Revolución de 1930. Washington Luís fue depuesto en 1930.

Washington Luís fue un modernizador del PRP, instalando una administración técnica, tanto en la Secretaría de Justicia y Seguridad Pública, (en la llamada Policía sin política) filtered water bottle, como en el Ayuntamiento de São Paulo y en el gobierno del estado.

El PRP fue derrotado en las elecciones presidenciales de 1910 cuando el presidente de São Paulo Albuquerque Lins fue candidato a vicepresidente en la lista de Ruy Barbosa en la llamada Campaña Civilista. Los próceres políticos del PRP adquirieron fama de buenos administradores y hombres honrados, e incluso algunos fueron considerados estadistas. En general, el PRP, en la República Vieja, era comandado por el presidente del estado del momento. Los líderes que más por tiempo tuvieron fuerza en la dirección ejecutiva del PRP fueron el presidente Jorge Tibiriçá Piratininga, fallecido en 1928; el coronel Fernando Prestes de Albuquerque y Altino Arantes Marques, ambos fallecidos después del término de la República Velha.

En 1 de marzo de 1930, el candidato a presidente de la República Júlio Prestes, del PRP obtuvo el 90% de los votos válidos en el Estado de São Paulo. Fue otra gran victoria del PRP frente al Partido Democrático que hubo apoyado al candidato de oposición Getúlio Vargas. Júlio Prestes, sin embargo, no llegó a tomar posesión, atropellado metafóricamente por la Revolución de 1930.

Con la revolución de 1930, varios próceres políticos del PRP, inclusive el presidente electo Júlio Prestes, que se hubo licenciado del gobierno de São Paulo, y el presidente de la república, Washington Luís, fueron exiliados. El vicepresidente de São Paulo, en ejercicio del cargo de presidente del estado, Heitor Penteado, fue depuesto el 24 de octubre de 1930, arrestado y exiliado. El PRP no volvería jamás a gobernar São Paulo.

Con la Revolución de 1930 y el ascenso de Getúlio Vargas al poder rompieron con este ciclo, todos los partidos fueron extintos, aunque volvieron a la luz en las elecciones de 1933. También fue extinto el dominio de la política del café con leche (representada por el PRP y por el PRM). A partir de 1930, salvo pocas excepciones, gauchos y mineros se reservarían la presidencia de la república, hasta la década de 1980. Los años siguientes a 1930, gauchos y mineros estarían en el poder federal durante 41 años. Júlio Prestes fue el último paulista electo presidente de la república.

En la Revolución Constitucionalista de 1932, el PRP y el Partido Democrático se unieron en el combate a la dictadura del “Gobierno Provisional”, y, en 1933, el PRP participó de las elecciones para la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente a través del “Frente Único por São Paulo Unido”, que fue la última vez, en la historia de São Paulo, que las fuerzas políticas paulistas marcharon unidas. En sus últimos años de vida, el PRP lanzó como diputado provincial constituyente a su última estrella: Adhemar Pereira de Barros. En esa época, el PRP hizo oposición al gobernador Armando de Sales Oliveira, no aceptando apoyarlo cuando se lanzó candidato a presidente de la república en las elecciones marcadas para enero de 1938.

El PRP fue definitivamente extinto, luego después de la instalación del Estado Nuevo, por el decreto ley nº 37, de 2 de diciembre de 1937. Adhemar de Barros y Fernando Costa, perrepistas históricos, fueron interventores de São Paulo durante la dictadura. Con la vuelta de los partidos políticos en 1945, los remanentes del viejo PRP constituyeron la sección paulista del Partido Social Democrático, excepto Júlio Prestes y elementos conectados a Washington Luís, que participaron en la fundación de la Unión Democrática Nacional, y Adhemar de Barros y sus seguidores, que crearon el Partido Republicano Progresista y posteriormente el Partido Social Progresista.

Ecce homo

Ecce homo (“behold the man”, Ecclesiastical Latin: [ˈɛttʃɛ ˈɔmo], Classical Latin: [ˈɛkkɛ ˈhɔmoː]) are the Latin words used by Pontius Pilate in the Vulgate translation of John , when he presents a scourged Jesus Christ, bound and crowned with thorns, to a hostile crowd shortly before his Crucifixion. The original Greek is Ίδε ό άνθρωπος (Ide ho anthropos). The Douay-Rheims Bible translates the phrase into English as “Behold the man!” The scene has been widely depicted in Christian art.

A scene of the Ecce Homo is a standard component of cycles illustrating the Passion and Life of Christ in art. It follows the Flagellation of Christ, the Crowning with thorns and the Mocking of Christ, the last two often being combined. The usual depiction shows Pilate and Christ, the mocking crowd and parts of the city of Jerusalem.

But, from the 15th century, devotional pictures began to portray Jesus alone, in half or full figure with a purple robe, loincloth, crown of thorns and torture wounds, especially on his head. Similar subjects but with the wounds of the crucifixion visible (Nail wounds on the limbs, spear wounds on the sides), are termed a Man of Sorrow(s) (also Misericordia). If the “Instruments of the Passion” are present, it may be called an Arma Christi. If Christ is sitting down (usually supporting himself with his hand on his thigh), it may be referred to it as Christ at rest or Pensive Christ. It is not always possible to distinguish these subjects.

The first depictions of the ecce homo scene in the arts appear in the 9th and 10th centuries in Syrian-Byzantine culture. Western depictions in the Middle Ages that often seem to depict the ecce homo scene diy running belt, (and are usually interpreted as such) more often than not only show the crowning of thorns and the mocking of Christ, (cf. the Egbert Codex and the Codex Aureus Epternacensis) which precede the actual ecce homo scene in the Bible. The independent image only developed around 1400, probably in Burgundy, but then rapidly became extremely popular, especially in Northern Europe.

The motif found increasing currency as the Passion became a central theme in Western piety in the 15th and 16th centuries. The ecce homo theme was included not only in the passion plays of medieval theatre, but also in cycles of illustrations of the story of the Passion, as in the Passions of Albrecht Dürer or the prints of Martin Schongauer. The scene was (especially in France) often depicted as a sculpture or group of sculptures; even altarpieces and other paintings with the motif were produced (by, for example, Hieronymus Bosch or Hans Holbein). Like the passion plays, the visual depictions of the ecce homo scene, it has been argued, often, and increasingly, portray the people of Jerusalem in a highly critical light, bordering perhaps on antisemitic caricatures. Equally, this style of art has been read as a kind of simplistic externalisation of the inner hatred of the angry crowd towards Jesus, not necessarily implying any racial judgment.

The motif of the lone figure of a suffering Christ who seems to be staring directly at the observer, enabling him/her to personally identify with the events of the Passion, arose in the late Middle Ages. A parallel development was that the similar motifs of the Man of Sorrow and Christ at rest increased in importance. The subject was used repeatedly in later prints (for example, by Jacques Callot and Rembrandt), the paintings of the Renaissance and the Baroque, as well as in Baroque sculptures.

Hieronymus Bosch painted his first Ecce Homo during the 1470s. He returned to the subject in 1490 to paint in a characteristically Netherlandish style, with deep perspective and a surreal ghostly image of praying monks in the lower left-hand corner.

In 1498, Albrecht Dürer depicted the suffering of Christ in the Ecce Homo of his Great Passion, print series in unusually close relation with his self-portrait, leading to a reinterpretation of the motif as a metaphor for the suffering of the artist. James Ensor used the ecce homo motif in his ironic print Christ and the Critics (1891), in which he portrayed himself as Christ.

One of the more famous modern versions of the Ecce Homo motif was that by the Polish artist, Adam Chmielowski who went on to found, as Brother Albert, The Congregation of Albertine Brothers Serving the Poor (CSAPU) and a year later, Albertine Sisters, eventually becoming proclaimed a saint on 12 November 1989 by Pope John Paul II, the author of a play about Chmielowski, written between 1944-1950 when the future Pontiff and later himself a saint was a young priest. Chmielowski’s Ecce Homo (146 cm x 96.5 cm, unsigned, painted between 1879 and 1881), was significant in Chmielowski’s life, as it is in the I Act of Wojtyła’s play. Pope John Paul II is said to have kept a copy of this painting in his apartment at the Vatican. The original can be viewed in the Ecce Homo Sanctuary of the Albertine Sisters in Kraków. It was painted at a time when the painter was going through an inner struggle, trying to decide whether to remain an artist, or to give up painting to pursue the calling to minister to the poor.

Especially in the 19th and 20th centuries, the meaning of ecce homo motif has been extended to the portrayal of suffering and the degradation of humans through violence and war. A notable 20th-century depiction is Lovis Corinth’s work Ecce Homo (1925), which shows, from the perspective of the crowd, Jesus, a soldier and Pilate dressed as a physician. Following the Holocaust of World War II, Otto Dix portrayed himself as the suffering Christ in a concentration camp, in Ecce Homo with self-likeness behind barbed wire (1948).

By contrast, Antonio Ciseri’s 1871 Ecce Homo portrayal presents a semi-photographic view of a balcony seen from behind the central figures of a scourged Christ and Pilate (whose face is not visible). The crowd forms a distant mass, almost without individuality, and much of the detailed focus is on the normally secondary figures of Pilate’s aides, guards, secretary and wife.

An Ecce Homo fresco by 19th-century Spanish painter Elías García Martínez gained notoriety in August 2012 when a woman named Cecilia Giménez took it upon herself to restore it without any training or expertise, resulting in Jesus’ looking like “a very hairy monkey”. The “monkey Christ” painting has become a tourist attraction and destination, as well as the basis of a popular internet meme. So many people were flocking to see the painting that the town started charging an admission fee, which has raised more than 50,000 euros (£43,000) for charity as of mid August 2013.

Ecce Homo, Anonymous (Portugal) best water bottles to buy, 15th century

Hieronymus Bosch, 1470s

Ecce Homo, Abraham Janssens, (1567–1632)

Correggio, 16th century

Tintoretto, 1546

Ecce Homo, by Titian (1490–1576)

Ecce Homo by Andrea Solario

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Ecce Homo, by Pedro de Mena, 17th century

The statue of Ecce Homo, revered in Brazil as the Good Jesus

Ecce Homo, by Pierre Mignard, (1690)

Adam Chmielowski Ecce Homo, 1879-1881

Al Ain University of Science and Technology

Al Ain University of Science and Technology (AAU, in Arabic:جامعة العين للعلوم والتكنولوجيا was established in 2004 and is located in the city of Al Ain cat toothpaste dispenser, within the Emirate of Abu Dhabi how to tenderise beef, United Arab Emirates.

Al Ain University of Science and Technology (AAU) is licensed by the UAE Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. AAU uses English as a medium of instruction. It has two campuses – in Abu Dhabi, the capital of the UAE, and in Al Ain, the garden city of the UAE. Since the establishment of the university in 2005 best water bottles to buy, the student enrollment has tripled, including students from the UAE and more than thirty nationalities. In the 2014-2015 academic year, the university had 1204 new students enrolled across its bachelors and masters programs 1 liter bpa free water bottle.

The university offers accredited programs through its colleges (Business Administration, Education, Engineering and I.T, Law and Pharmacy) with 11 baccalaureate degrees. It offers a master’s degree in business administration (MBA) and a Professional Diploma in Education.

AAU is a licensed CAA institution by the UAE Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research

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The students are 60% male and 40% are female

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Brian Moynihan

Brian Thomas Moynihan (born October 9, 1959) is an American lawyer, businessman and the chairman and CEO of Bank of America funny football t shirts. He joined the board of directors, following his promotion to president and CEO.

Moynihan was born in Marietta, Ohio in 1959, the sixth of eight children in a Roman Catholic family of Irish descent. Moynihan graduated from Brown University in 1981, where he majored in history, co-captained the rugby team, and met his future wife, classmate Susan E. Berry. He earned a Juris Doctor from the University of Notre Dame Law School, before returning to Providence, Rhode Island to join Edwards & Angell LLP, the city’s largest corporate law firm.

Moynihan held numerous banking positions before becoming president of consumer and small business banking at Bank of America in January 2009.

He joined Fleet Boston in April 1993 as a deputy general counsel. From 1999 to April 2004, he served as executive vice president, managing Fleet’s brokerage and wealth management division. After Bank of America (BoA) merged with FleetBoston Financial in 2004, he joined BoA as president of global wealth and investment management. He was named CEO of Merrill Lynch after its sale to BoA in September 2008, and became the CEO of Bank of America after Ken Lewis stepped down in 2010.

On August 25, 2011, CNBC’s Drew Sandholm noted that “[d]espite having recently told investors Bank of America … doesn’t need to raise capital, CEO Brian Moynihan will accept $5 billion in capital from famed investor Warren Buffett. The deal not only surprised the Fast Money traders on Thursday, it also caused them to question Moynihan’s credibility.”

On September 12, 2011, CNBC’s John Carney noted that Moynihan had “once again laid out his company’s plan to meet regulatory capital requirements and denied that the bank will have to issue new stock to raise capital best water bottles to buy… [Moynihan] says that Warren Buffett’s $5 billion counts as Tier 1 Capital. But the markets have largely ignored the investment, most likely because it looks a lot more like debt than capital.”

On October 26, 2011, Huffington Post blogger Jillian Berman noted that BoA “has also been hammered in the stock and bonds markets” and “was the worst performer in the Dow Jones Industrial Average for two-quarters straight … while Moody’s downgraded the bank last month.” She added while JPMorgan Chase’s CEO[who?] received a $19 million raise in 2010, Moynihan’s salary stayed level at $950,000.

On December 27, 2011, Julia LaRoche wrote in Business Insider that Moynihan “admitted the proposed $5 monthly fee for debit card users wasn’t the best idea”. She quoted him as saying: “We struck a chord with customers that no one anticipated. We learned our lesson and stopped it.” It was later reported that the failed fee plan led to a 20% increase in account closures during the last three months of 2011. In late January 2012, Moynihan stated:

“What we need to do is to continue to fine-tune the company, give capital ratios where people understood that we had the capital we knew we had. And then they saw that and that’s why you saw some response in the stock….The core issue now is to drive the core earnings, and we’ve got to get the costs down in the company, which we’re working on. And then as the economy continues to move along costume football jerseys, even at the 2 percent growth level, we’ll start to materialize more and more earnings, and that’s what we need to do.”

Business Insider noted that “a group of law professors and activists from a non-profit called Public Citizen sent a 24 page petition to Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke and Treasury Secretary Geithner asking them to consider breaking up and reforming Bank of America.”

The bank’s 2012 shareholder meeting in Charlotte, North Carolina convened “as protests swirled inside and outside”, according to the San Francisco Chronicle. There were complaints from shareholders regarding the bank’s mortgage servicing operations, decreased share prices, and other issues. Protesters converged outside the building, which they were barred from entering by police and metal barricades. In response to the criticisms of the bank’s mortgage servicing operations, Moynihan tried to reassure the audience, saying “you can call us and we will figure it out”.

In 2012, Moynihan, alongside several other CEO’s, faced heavy criticism from Senator Bernard Sanders (I-Vt.) in a report titled “Top Corporate Tax Dodgers”. According to the report, Moynihan’s Bank of America paid no federal income tax in 2010 and received a $1.9 billion tax refund despite making $4.4 billion in profits. The report also includes criticisms of Bank of America’s use of tax havens.

Thomas P. Stafford

Thomas Patten “Tom” Stafford (born September 17, 1930), (Lt Gen, USAF, Ret.), is an American former Air Force officer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut. He flew aboard two Gemini space flights; and in 1969 was the Commander of Apollo 10, the second manned mission to orbit the Moon and the first to fly a Lunar Module there.

In 1975, Stafford was Commander of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project flight, the first joint U.S.-Soviet space mission. A Brigadier General at the time, he became the first general officer to fly in space. He was the first member of his Naval Academy class to pin on the first, second and third stars of a general officer.

He made six rendezvous in space and logged 507 hours of space flight. He has flown over 120 different types of fixed wing and rotary aircraft and three different types of spacecraft.

Stafford was born September 17, 1930, in Weatherford, Oklahoma, where he graduated from Weatherford High School in 1948. He was a Boy Scout and he earned the rank of Star Scout.

Stafford earned a Bachelor of Science degree with honors in 1952 from the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland, and was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the United States Air Force. He received his pilot wings at Connally AFB, Waco, Texas, in September 1953. He completed advanced interceptor training and was assigned to the 54th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, Ellsworth AFB, Rapid City, South Dakota. In December 1955 he was assigned to the 496th Fighter Interceptor Squadron, Hahn Air Base, West Germany, where he performed the duties of pilot, flight leader, and flight test maintenance officer, flying F-86Ds. He attended the USAF Experimental Test Pilot School and received the A. B. Honts Award as the outstanding graduate in 1959.

He was an instructor in flight test training and specialized academic subjects-establishing basic textbooks and directing the writing of flight test manuals for use by the staff and students. He is co-author of the Pilot’s Handbook for Performance Flight Testing and the Aerodynamics Handbook for Performance Flight Testing.

Stafford was selected among the second group of NASA astronauts in September 1962 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to participate in Projects Gemini and Apollo.

Stafford was originally scheduled to fly with veteran astronaut Alan Shepard on the first manned Gemini mission, Gemini 3. But when Shepard was removed from the flight rotation due to an inner ear problem, Stafford was reassigned to backup pilot for that mission. In December 1965, he, along with spacecraft commander Wally Schirra, piloted Gemini VI during the first rendezvous in space, and helped develop techniques to prove the basic theory and practicality of a space rendezvous.

In June 1966 he commanded Gemini IX with Eugene Cernan due to the deaths of prime crew members Charlie Bassett and Elliot See. He performed a demonstration of an early rendezvous that would be used in Apollo 10: the first optical rendezvous; and a lunar orbit abort rendezvous. Until the launch of STS-94 in 1997, he held the record for the briefest duration between spaceflights, at 5 months 19 days.

From August 1966 to October 1968, Stafford headed the mission planning analysis and software development responsibilities for the astronaut group for Apollo program.

Stafford was the lead member of the group which helped formulate the sequence of missions leading to the first lunar landing mission. He demonstrated and implemented the theory of a pilot manually flying the Saturn booster into orbit and the translunar injection maneuver.

Stafford also was largely responsible for NASA adopting color television for its spaceflights. Apollo 10 originally planned to use the black-and-white Apollo TV camera, but Stafford was determined to let the American public share in the beauty of the missions they were funding. The development of a sequential color television system by Westinghouse caught his attention and in the early days of 1969, the demonstration made for him was the catalyst for his pushing NASA to adopt the color format. Once NASA saw how much publicity the color TV pictures generated, the format became standard on all subsequent missions (bar Apollo 11’s lunar surface TV camera – which was not flight-approved for color).

Stafford was Commander of Apollo 10 in May 1969, which included the first flight of the Lunar Module during a Moon orbit, the first rendezvous while in the Moon environment, and the entire lunar landing mission except for the actual landing. He also did reconnaissance and evaluation of future landing sites for Apollo 11.

Stafford and his crewmates, John Young and Gene Cernan, were cited in the Guinness Book of World Records for the highest speed ever attained by man— during Apollo 10’s return from the Moon, the spacecraft reached 24,791 statute miles per hour (39,897 kilometres per hour).

He was assigned as head of the NASA Astronaut Corps in June 1969, responsible for the selection of flight crews for projects Apollo and Skylab. He reviewed and monitored flight crew training status reports, and was responsible for coordination, scheduling, and control of all activities involving NASA astronauts.

In June 1971, Stafford was assigned as Deputy Director of Flight Crew Operations at the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. He was responsible for assisting the director in planning and implementation of programs for the astronaut group, the Aircraft Operations, Flight Crew Integration, Flight Crew Procedures, and Crew Simulation and Training Divisions. Also in 1971, Stafford served as a pallbearer for the crew of the ill-fated Soyuz 11.

Stafford logged his fourth space flight as Apollo commander of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission, July 15–24, 1975—a joint space flight culminating in the historic first meeting in space between American astronauts and Soviet cosmonauts.

After announcement of the crew members, they immediately began an intensive two-year training program, which included learning the Russian language and making frequent trips to the USSR, where they trained for weeks at Star City, the cosmonaut training center near Moscow.

He earned the Air Force Command Pilot Astronaut Wings.

Stafford assumed command of the Air Force Flight Test Center November 4, 1975. He was promoted to the rank of Major General August 9 best water bottles to buy, 1975, with date of rank of June 1, 1973. (Into the 1990s, Edwards AFB had a railcar diner named “Stafford Station” in tribute to him, which could also be taken as a play on the actual train station.)

Promoted to rank of Lieutenant General on March 15, 1978, he assumed duties as Deputy Chief of Staff, Research Development and Acquisition, Headquarters USAF, Washington, DC, on May 1, 1978. He retired from the Air Force in November 1979.

In June 1990, Vice President Quayle and Admiral Richard Truly, then the NASA administrator, asked Stafford to chair a committee to independently advise NASA how to carry out President George H. W. Bush’s vision of returning to the Moon, this time to stay, and then go on to explore Mars. Stafford assembled teams of 40 full-time and 150 part-time members from the DOD, DOE and NASA, and completed the study called America at the Threshold, a road map for the next 30 years of U.S. manned spaceflight. Stafford and Quayle held a news conference at the White House in June 1991 to announce the recommendations to the public.

He co-founded the technical consulting firm of Stafford, Burke, and Hecker, Inc. in Alexandria, Virginia. He sits on the Board of Directors of six corporations listed on the New York Stock Exchange, one listed on the American Exchange, and two others, including Seagate Technology, Inc., the largest independent hard disk drive maker in the world. He has served as an advisor to a number of governmental agencies including NASA and the Air Force Systems Command. He was a defense advisor to Ronald Reagan during the 1980 presidential campaign and a member of the Reagan transition team. He has also served as spokesman for Omega watches.

He served on the National Research Council’s Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board; the Committee on NASA Scientific and Technological Program Reviews, and Vice President Quayle’s Space Policy Advisory Council. He was Chairman of the NASA Advisory Council Task Force on Shuttle-Mir Rendezvous and Docking Missions, and is currently the Chairman of the NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee. He is an honorary board member of the humanitarian organization, Wings of Hope.

Stafford wrote the epilogue of the book Falling to Earth: An Apollo 15 Astronaut’s Journey to the Moon by fellow Apollo astronaut Al Worden. In 2004, working with author Michael Cassutt, they published a book titled We Have Capture: Tom Stafford and the Space Race.

Stafford’s first wife was the former Faye L. Shoemaker. They had two daughters, Dionne Kay, and Karin Elaine. They also have two grandsons, Thomas P. Stafford II and Andrew Alexi Harrison best way to tenderize beef. He later married the former Linda Ann Dishman of Chelsea, Oklahoma. They have two sons, Michael Thomas, and Stanislav “Stas” Patten. Linda has two children from a previous marriage, Kassie Pierce (Hill) and Mark Hill, and four grandchildren: Sloane, Lee, Marcus, and Tara.

Stafford enjoys hunting, weight lifting, soaring, scuba diving, fishing, and swimming.

Stafford is a fellow of the American Astronautical Society, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, and a member of the Explorers Club.

In 2008 he received the Elmer A. Sperry Award, jointly with Glynn S. Lunney, Aleksei A. Leonov and Konstantin D. Bushuyev, for their work on the Apollo-Soyuz mission and the Apollo-Soyuz docking interface design.

In 2011, Stafford was awarded the , the most prestigious honor in aviation, which is presented annually to a living American for “significant public service of enduring value to aviation in the United States.” He also received the Lifetime Achievement Award on September 21, 2011. He was elected to the in 2014.

Stafford’s many military decorations and awards include the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal with two oak leaf clusters, Distinguished Flying Cross with oak leaf cluster, Air Force Commendation Medal and Air Force Outstanding Unit Award ribbon with three oak leaf clusters.

Other awards presented to Stafford include the Presidential Medal of Freedom, NASA Distinguished Service Medal with oak leaf cluster, NASA Exceptional Service Medal with oak leaf cluster, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Octave Chanute Award (1976), the Veterans of Foreign Wars National Space Award, the Golden Plate Award for Science and Exploration (1976), National Geographic Society’s General Thomas D. White USAF Space Trophy (1975), the A. B wall mounted toothpaste dispenser. Honts Award as the outstanding graduate from the USAF Experimental Test Pilot School, and the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale Gold Space Medal. In 1966, he was co-recipient of the AIAA Award, and in 1969 he received the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences Special Trustees Award. On 12 April 2011, Stafford received the Russian Medal “For Merit in Space Exploration” “for outstanding contribution to the development of international cooperation in manned space flight”.

Stafford received the Harmon International Aviation Trophy twice—in 1966 for piloting Gemini 6A, and in 1976 trophy was presented jointly to Stafford and cosmonaut Alexei Leonov for their work on ASTP.

Stafford is an inductee of the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame and the International Space Hall of Fame.

In 1979, Stafford was awarded the Society of Experimental Test Pilots James H. Doolittle Award. On January 19, 1993, he received the Congressional Space Medal of Honor.

He is the recipient of several honorary degrees. These include a Doctorate of Science from Oklahoma City University; a Doctorate of Laws, Western State University; a Doctorate of Communications, Emerson College, Boston, Massachusetts; and a Doctorate of Aeronautical Engineering, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida.

Stafford is heavily honored in his hometown of Weatherford, also in Weatherford, there is a building on the Southwestern Oklahoma State University named in his honor, including his name being on the local airport, Thomas P. Stafford Airport, and The Stafford Air & Space Museum.

A building, home to the FAA Academy, at the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City, OK is also named in his honor.

Stafford played himself in the 1974 TV movie Houston, We’ve Got a Problem. In the 1996 TV movie Apollo 11 he was played by Tony Carlin. In the 1998 HBO miniseries From the Earth to the Moon he was played by Steve Hofvendahl. Stafford was briefly portrayed by an extra in the pilot episode of the FX show The Americans.

British rock band New Model Army has quoted Stafford in the lyrics to their song “Space” included on their fifth studio album Impurity in 1990.

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