Böblingen

Böblingen (German pronunciation: [ˈbøːblɪŋən]) is a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, seat of Böblingen District. Sindelfingen and Böblingen are contiguous.

Böblingen was founded by Count Wilhelm von Tübingen-Böblingen in 1253. Württemberg acquired the town in 1357, and on 12 May 1525 one of the bloodiest battles of the German Peasants’ War took place in Böblingen. Jörg Truchsess von Waldburg attacked a force of 15,000 armed peasants; 3,000 were killed. By the end of the Thirty Years’ War in 1648, the population of Böblingen had been reduced to 600.

After the establishment of the Kingdom of Württemberg, Böblingen became the seat of an Oberamt (administrative unit) in 1818. The town was connected to the railroad network in 1879, allowing industrialization to take place. In the context of administrative reform in 1938, Böblingen Oberamt became Böblingen Landkreis (district).

During the First World War an airbase was established. It went into service on 16 August 1915. It had a significant impact on the further development of the city defuzzer for clothes. In 1925 the airbase became the Landesflughafen (state airport) of Baden-Württemberg called Böblingen Airport. The aircraft pioneer Hanns Klemm (1885–1961) established his company “Klemm Leichtflugzeugbau GmbH” (“Klemm Light Aircraft Company”) next to it. Until the Second World War it was the major employer in Böblingen.

During the Second World War the town had a Luftwaffe airbase and military barracks cell phone pouch for running. On 1 September 1939 (the day the war began) the airbase was the home station for the I/JG 52 (1st Group of the Jagdgeschwader 52) flying the Bf109 E-1 fighter aircraft.

On the night of 7 October 1943 during World War II, Allied air forces dropped 408 incendiary bombs and 35 high explosive bombs killing 20 men, 12 women, 12 children and wounding 200 people. 1,735 people lost their homes and 70 percent of the old town was destroyed. In July 1944 another attack followed, killing 36 more civilians.

In 1962, Böblingen was designated a Große Kreisstadt (major district town). Its current boundaries were established in 1971 when it was merged with the municipality of Dagersheim.

Böblingen is easily reached by multiple forms of transport.

Böblingen is about 20 minutes via S-Bahn from Stuttgart Airport.

The interchange between the federal freeways (Autobahn) A 8 and A 81 lies northeast from Böblingen. A 81 leads past the north of the city. Use exits Böblingen Ost (East), Böblingen/Sindelfingen, Böblingen Hulb and Ehningen. Federal highways B 464 (Renningen – Reutlingen) and B 14 run by the city.

Böblingen station lies on the Gäu Railway (Gäubahn) from Stuttgart to Singen buy glass drinking bottles. Regional trains serve the city every hour.

Local public transport within Böblingen operates under the uniform prices and coordination of the Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund Stuttgart (“Stuttgart Transit and Fare Association”, or VVS). The S1 (Kirchheim unter Teck–Stuttgart–Herrenberg) S-Bahn (suburban rail) line connects Böblingen with Stuttgart and its S-Bahn network. Travel time to Stuttgart is about 25 minutes.

In 1996 the Schönbuchbahn line to Dettenhausen was re-activated sweater fabric. In 2004 the reactivation of the Rankbachbahn line to Renningen began and since 2010 it has been served by line S60 of the S-Bahn.

In addition to the main rail station, the following stations also serve the city: on S-Bahn line S1: Goldberg and Hulb; on the Schönbuchbahn line: Danziger Street, Böblingen Süd (South), Heusteig Street, and Zimmerschlag. Numerous bus routes operate in the city, and are also under the VVS.

Panzer Kaserne (translated as Tank Barracks) is a US base which serves as headquarters for Marine Corps Forces, Europe (MARFOREUR), ‘Marine Corps Forces, Africa (MARFORAF) and the 1st Battalion of the US Army’s 10th Special Forces Group. This former German military installation was the home of the US Army’s 7th Army Support Command (7th Army SUPCOM) until mid-1969 and its VII Corps successor VII Corps COSCOM (Corps Support Command). Later, units of the 3rd Brigade of the 1st Infantry Division (Forward) were stationed here as part of VII Corps.

Education in Germany has two lower levels of school, Kindergarten and elementary school (Grundschule – grades 1–4), and three upper levels of school, Werkrealschule (grades 5–9/10), Realschule (5–10) and Gymnasium (5–12/13). Parents decide at the end of the fourth grade, which level of school the child should attend based on academic performance and aptitude.

In Boeblingen there are:

“Böblinger Jahrmarkt” in July, wine festival in September and Christmas Market in December).

The Böblingen–Sindelfingen area is the location of several large enterprises:

Böblingen/Sindelfingen can be called a center of both automobile and computer industries. Daimler develops and manufactures its Mercedes brand of luxury cars here.

Hewlett-Packard (and its offsprings) and IBM develop computer systems, software and electronic products in the area. Böblingen was once also a major center of European computer manufacturing, with an IBM semiconductor and printed circuit board lab and an HP computer systems manufacturing operation. Most of those electronics-production sites have either been closed or moved to other locations (such as nearby Herrenberg).

The Sporthalle (Böblingen) served as one of two playgrounds for the FIBA EuroBasket 1971.

Böblingen is twinned with:

All twin cities compete in a twin town Olympiad every 3 years, excluding Sömmerda.

Anexo:Letras latinas

Lista de letras latinas.

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Áá Àà Ăă Ắắ Ằằ Ẵẵ Ẳẳ Ââ Ấấ Ầầ Ẫẫ Ẩẩ Ǎǎ Åå Ǻǻ Ää Ǟǟ Ãã Ȧȧ Ǡǡ Ąą Āā Ảả Ȁȁ Ȃȃ Ạạ Ặặ Ậậ Ḁḁ Ⱥⱥ Ḃḃ Ḅḅ Ḇḇ Ƀƀ Ɓɓ Ƃƃ Ćć Ĉĉ Čč Ċċ Çç Ḉḉ Ȼȼ Ƈƈ ɕ Ďď Ḋḋ Ḑḑ Ḍḍ Ḓḓ Ḏḏ Đđ Ɖɖ Ɗɗ Ƌƌ ȡ Éé Èè Ĕĕ Êê Ếế Ềề Ễễ Ểể Ěě Ëë Ẽẽ Ėė Ȩȩ Ḝḝ Ęę Ēē Ḗḗ Ḕḕ Ẻẻ Ȅȅ Ȇȇ Ẹẹ Ệệ Ḙḙ Ḛḛ Ɇɇ Ḟḟ Ƒƒ Ǵǵ Ğğ Ĝĝ Ǧǧ Ġġ Ģģ Ḡḡ Ǥǥ Ɠɠ Ĥĥ Ȟȟ Ḧḧ Ḣḣ Ḩḩ Ḥḥ Ḫḫ H̱ẖ Ħħ Ⱨⱨ Íí Ìì Ĭĭ Îî Ǐǐ Ïï Ḯḯ Ĩĩ İi Įį Īī Ỉỉ Ȉȉ Ȋȋ Ịị Ḭḭ Ɨɨ Ĵĵ ǰ ȷ Ɉɉ ʝ ɟ ʄ Ḱḱ Ǩǩ Ķķ Ḳḳ Ḵḵ Ƙƙ Ⱪⱪ Ĺĺ Ľľ Ļļ Ḷḷ Ḹḹ Ḽḽ Ḻḻ Łł Ŀŀ Ƚƚ Ⱡⱡ Ɫɫ ɬ ɭ ȴ Ḿḿ Ṁṁ Ṃṃ ɱ Ńń Ǹǹ Ňň Ññ Ṅṅ Ņņ Ṇṇ Ṋṋ Ṉṉ Ɲɲ Ƞƞ ɳ ȵ N̈n̈ Óó Òò Ŏŏ Ôô Ốố Ồồ Ỗỗ Ổổ Ǒǒ Öö Ȫȫ Őő Õõ Ṍṍ Ṏṏ Ȭȭ Ȯȯ Ȱȱ Øø Ǿǿ Ǫǫ Ǭǭ Ōō Ṓṓ Ṑṑ Ỏỏ Ȍȍ Ȏȏ Ơơ Ớớ Ờờ Ỡỡ Ởở Ợợ Ọọ Ộộ Ɵɵ Ṕṕ Ṗṗ Ᵽᵽ Ƥƥ P̃p̃ ʠ Ɋɋ Ŕŕ Řř Ṙṙ Ŗŗ Ȑȑ Ȓȓ Ṛṛ Ṝṝ Ṟṟ Ɍɍ ɼ Ɽɽ ɾ Śś Ṥṥ Ŝŝ Šš Ṧṧ Ṡṡẛ Şş Ṣṣ Ṩṩ Șș ʂ ȿ S̩s̩ Ťť T̈ẗ Ṫṫ Ţţ Ṭṭ Țț Ṱṱ Ṯṯ Ŧŧ Ⱦⱦ ƫ Ƭƭ Ʈʈ ȶ Úú Ùù Ŭŭ Ûû Ǔǔ Ůů Üü Ǘǘ Ǜǜ Ǚǚ Ǖǖ Űű Ũũ Ṹṹ Ųų Ūū Ṻṻ Ủủ Ȕȕ Ȗȗ Ưư Ứứ Ừừ Ữữ Ửử Ựự Ụụ Ṳṳ Ṷṷ Ṵṵ Ʉʉ Ṽṽ Ṿṿ Ʋʋ Ẃẃ Ẁẁ Ŵŵ W̊ẘ Ẅẅ Ẇẇ Ẉẉ Ẍẍ Ẋẋ Ýý Ỳỳ Ŷŷ Y̊ẙ Ÿÿ Ỹỹ Ẏẏ Ȳȳ Ỷỷ Ỵỵ ʏ Ɏɏ Ƴƴ Źź Ẑẑ Žž Żż Ẓẓ Ẕẕ Ƶƶ Ȥȥ ʐ ʑ ɀ Ⱬⱬ

a’ aa ae ãe ah ai ãi ái am âm an än ân ån ão ao aq au äu aw ay ‘b bb bd bh bp bz cc cg ch čh ci ck cn cs ct cu cz ‘d dc dd dg dh dj dl dq dr dt dx dy dz e’ ea éa ee eh ei éi em ém êm en én ên ɛn eo eq eu ew ey ff fh gb gc ge gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn gq gr gu gw ǥw gx gy hh hj hl hm hn hs hu hw hx i’ ie ig ih ii ij il im ím in ín în io ío iq iu ix jh jj kg kh kj kk kl kn kp kr ku kw ḵw ky lh lj ll l·l ly mb mf mg mh ml mn mp mv n’ nb nc nd ng ńg ñg nh nj nk nn np nq nr ns nt nw nx ny nz o’ oa oe õe oh oi ói on om ôm ön ôn ɔn oo oq ou ow oy øy œu pf ph pl pn pp ps pt qg qh qu qw rd rh rl rn rr rs rt rz sc sh ſh si sj sk sl sr ss sv sy sz tc tg th ti tj tl tr ts tt tx ty tz u’ uc ue ug uh ui úi um úm un ún ün uo uq ur uu uw vh vv wh wr wu xg xh xi xu xw x̱w xy ‘y yh yi yk ym yn yr yu yy zh zs zv zz

aai abh adh aei aim ain aío amh aoi aon aou aoû aqh aye bhf c’h chh chj chs ddh dlh dsh dtc dzh dzv dzs eai eái eau ein eoi eqh geü ghj ghw gli gni guë güe gqh hhw hml hny idh igh ign ilh ill iqh iúi jyu khu khw lli nch ndl ndz ng’ ngb ngc ngg ngh ngk ngq ngw ngx nkc nkh nkp nkq nkx nph npl nqh nrh ntc nth ntl nts ntx nyh nyk nzv obh odh oen ogh oin oío omh ooi oqh plh qx’ rnd rrh sch sci sh’ skj ssi sth stj tcg tch ths tlh tsg tsh tsj tsv tth txh tyh uío uqh urr xhw

abha adha agha aidh aigh amha chth dsch eabh eadh eamh eeuw eidh eigh ieuw illi gqx’ ndlh nplh ntsh ntxh nyng obha odha ogha oidh oigh omha ough phth thsh tsch

abhai adhai aghai amhai eabha eadha eamha eidhi eighi obhai odhai oghai oidhi oighi omhai tzsch

eabhai eadhai eamhai eidhea eighea oidhea oighea

Lucena position

The Lucena position is one of the most famous and important positions in chess endgame theory, where one side has a rook and a pawn and the defender has a rook. It is fundamental in the rook and pawn versus rook endgame. If the side with the pawn can reach this type of position, he can forcibly win the game. Most rook and pawn versus rook endgames reach either the Lucena position or the Philidor position if played accurately (de la Villa 2008:125). The side with the pawn will try to reach the Lucena position to win; the other side will try to reach the Philidor position to draw.

The position is named after the Spaniard Luis Ramirez de Lucena, although he did not analyze it or publish it (Shenk 2006:79).

The Lucena position is named after the Spaniard Luis Ramírez de Lucena, although it is something of a misnomer, because the position does not in fact appear in his book on chess, Repetición de Amores e Arte de Axedrez (1497). It does appear, however, in Alessandro Salvio’s Il Puttino (1634) reuse glass bottles, a romance on the career of the chess player Leonardo da Cutri, and it is in that form that it is given here (Müller & Lamprecht 2001:179). Salvio attributes it to Scipione Genovino (Hooper & Whyld 1992:238). It is likely that the error arose from the sixth edition of the Handbuch des Schachspiels, in which editor Constantin Schwede incorrectly attributed the position to “Lucena 96”, possibly as a result of confusion over the references in Antonius van der Linde’s 1874 work Das Schachspiel des XVI. Jahrhunderts.

The position is shown above and below (the position can be moved as a whole or mirrored so that the pawn is on any of the files b through g). White’s aim is to either promote his pawn or else compel Black to give up his rook for it – either result will leave White with an overwhelming material advantage and a straightforward win. White has managed to advance his pawn to the seventh rank goalie gloves, but it is prevented from queening because his own king is in the way. White would like to move his king and then promote his pawn, but is prevented from moving to the a-file by the black rook, and prevented from moving to the c-file by the black king.

The essential characteristics of the position are:

An obvious approach by White (in the position above) such as

gets nowhere. Black can simply harass the white king with checks, and White makes no progress:

In the Lucena position, the side with the pawn has a winning method that works for any pawn except a rook pawn (i.e. on the a- or h-file). In some circumstances, it also works for a rook pawn.

In this position, White can win with

Now, if Black plays a waiting move, such as

hoping to harass the white king with checks again as in the above variation, White continues

(Or 5.Ka6 Ra1+.)

The black rook can no longer check the white king and Black cannot prevent the pawn from queening (Ward 2004:48). White’s shielding his king and pawn with the rook in this way was described as “building a bridge” by Aron Nimzowitsch (Hooper & Whyld 1992:238).

It is important that the white rook go initially to the fourth rank if Black uses his most active defense: repeatedly checking the white king. If Black abandons this defense, the white rook can build a bridge on the fifth rank. In the line above, after

if Black moves

there is a trap for White: if 6.Rd5?? (to build a bridge on the fifth rank) then 6…Rxb7! draws defuzzer for clothes. However, if

(6.Re4+ followed by either 7.Re8 or (if 7…Kf7) 8.Re5 works as well.)

and White can build a bridge on the fifth rank by getting the rook to b5, the king to b6, and then the pawn can promote (Ward 2004:48–49) (position reflected):

and White wins.

If the defending rook is on the rank that would prevent moving the rook to the crucial rank (i.e. 2.Rd4), see Rook and pawn versus rook endgame#Defending rook prevents the bridge.

If Black is to move in the diagrammed position, he can prevent the white rook from going to the fourth rank, but then White still wins:

(The black rook is not sufficiently far away to keep checking: if 5…Ra4+ then 6.Kb5 wins.) Now White wins by blocking the checks with

followed by

A bridge can also be built on the fifth rank (but it is better to build one on the fourth rank). The main line goes:

(Instead of 1.Rf4!)

Threatening to promote the pawn, Black can just delay it with checks.

and the pawn will promote. Or

Better is 2.Rf8 Kg7 3.Rf4!, back to a bridge on the fourth rank.

and White has a winning (but difficult) queen versus rook endgame (see pawnless chess endgame) (de la Villa 2008:126–27).

Alternative approaches are no better for Black. After 1.Rd1+ Ke7 2.Rd4 above, after

for example, White can still carry out his plan as above, or he can win with the simple

which chases the black king away and allows the pawn to promote. (Or, 5.b8=Q+ Rxb8 6.Rc4+ wins the rook.)

The Lucena method also works with a rook pawn if the white rook is already on the fourth rank, the black rook is not on the file adjacent to the pawn, and White is to move. Otherwise, the defending king must be cut off four files from the pawn, as in the diagram. This is not a true Lucena position since the king is cut off by more than one file. White wins:

and White has a won queen versus rook endgame – one that is easier to win than one where the rook is close to its king (Silman 2007:223–26).

Not all similar positions are wins. In this position, Black draws because he can safely check from the side. For this defense to work, there must be at least three files between the defending rook and the attacking king, and the defending king must be positioned such that it doesn’t block the checks; that is, the defending king is on the “short side” of the pawn (the one with fewer files between the pawn and the edge of the board) (de la Villa 2008:127–28). (See the “short side defense” at rook and pawn versus rook endgame for more details.)

In this 2000 game between Rice and Ian Snape, Black uses the above procedure:

Here White deviates from the above:

White resigns, but the alternative is:

and Black wins (Snape 2003:36).

In this position from a 1999 game between Ulf Andersson and Ralf Åkesson, White exchanges pawns in order to get to the Lucena position.

and Black resigned. White will reach a Lucena position: 81…Rg1+ 82.Kf7 Rf1 83.f6 Rf2 84.Kg7 Rg2+ 85.Kf8 Rf2 86.f7 Rg2 (a Lucena position) 87.Rd4+ Kc7 (if 87…Ke6 then 88.Ke8 wins) 88.Ke7 Re2+ 89. Kf6 Rf2+ 90.Ke6 Re2+ 91.Kf5 Rf2+ 92.Rf4 and White wins (Kaufeld & Kern 2011:189).

Rook and pawn endgames occur quite often in chess, about eight to ten percent of all games (de la Villa 2008:18), (Emms 2008:6). This position is very important since endgames may simplify to it. As it is a known win, endgames sometimes revolve around the player with the pawn trying to reach the Lucena position and the other player trying to prevent it.

There is an alternate method for winning this type of position that works only for pawns on the c-file through the f-file (see Rook and pawn versus rook endgame).

Notes

Bibliography