Ernst Neumann-Neander

Ernst Neumann-Neander (* 3 football socks sale. September 1871 in Kassel als Ernst Neumann; † 3. November 1954 in Düren-Rölsdorf) war ein deutscher Künstler und Erfinder.

Berühmt wurde Ernst Neumann-Neander, Sohn des Landschaftsmalers Emil Neumann, nicht nur als Kunstmaler und Grafiker, sondern hauptsächlich als Gestalter von Automobilen und Motorjachten und motorradbegeisterter Konstrukteur von Motorrädern. Bereits zwischen 1903 und 1908 baute er sein erstes Motorrad.

Neumann-Neander, von Freunden und Bekannten wegen seiner Vielseitigkeit „N²“ genannt, studierte in Kassel, München und Paris Malerei. In seiner Münchner Zeit zeichnete er für die Zeitschriften Jugend und Simplicissimus vor allem Karikaturen des modernen Lebens. Als Zeichner und Plakatgestalter des Jugendstils erlangte er schnell Ansehen weit über München hinaus. Er beteiligte sich an dem Schwabinger Kabarett Elf Scharfrichter und gründete zusammen mit dem Grafiker Heinrich Wolff eine Mal- und Zeichenschule classic football t shirts. Im Jahr 1903 geht er für etwa fünf Jahre nach Paris, wo er mit den damals wichtigen Größen der Automobilindustrie in Kontakt kommt. 1908 lässt er sich in Berlin nieder und gründet die „Ateliers Neumann“, die für alle bedeutenden Hersteller von Automobilen, aber auch andere Industriezweige die Reklame entwirft soka socks wholesale. Zusätzlich zeichnet er für verschiedene Auftraggeber Karosserien, die nach seinen Entwürfen ausgeführt werden. 1914 sind seine Entwürfe und Fahrzeuge auf der „Werkbundausstellung“ in Köln zu sehen. Der Erste Weltkrieg und die folgende Inflation fressen sein Vermögen auf.

Noch in Berlin entwirft er sein erstes Motorrad. 1924 siedelt er nach Köln über und gründet die Neander Motorfahrzeug GmbH mit Sitz in Euskirchen. Hier baut und konstruiert er für die Allright-Werke und für sich selbst Motorräder, die an der ersten großen sportlichen Nachkriegsveranstaltung teilnehmen. Neumann ist der älteste Teilnehmer des Rennens und erreicht das Ziel in Köln nach einer Fahrt durch Deutschland über 2000 km durch Eis und Schnee. Von Köln aus beginnt er eine Motorradproduktion in Euskirchen und siedelt 1926 nach Düren über.

In den 1930er Jahren beschäftigt er sich mit der Entwicklung und dem Bau sogenannter Fahrmaschinen, einer Mischung aus Motorrad und Automobil. Der Zweite Weltkrieg macht alles zunichte. Dennoch konstruiert Ernst Neumann weiter und entwickelt sowohl einen Kurvenneiger als auch Fahrzeuge für Kriegsversehrte. 1951 beginnt er wieder zu malen.

In Rölsdorf gibt es am Fabrikgebäude von Macherey-Nagel, Ecke Bahnstraße/Neumann-Neander-Straße

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, eine Gedenktafel. Der „Neander-Schuppen“, in dem die Konstruktionen entstanden, steht heute noch.

Classical physics

Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories. If a currently accepted theory is considered to be “modern,” and its introduction represented a major paradigm shift, then the previous theories, or new theories based on the older paradigm, will often be referred to as belonging to the realm of “classical” physics.[citation needed]

As such, the definition of a classical theory depends on context. Classical physical concepts are often used when modern theories are unnecessarily complex for a particular situation.

Classical theory has at least two distinct meanings in physics. In the context of quantum mechanics, classical theory refers to theories of physics that do not use the quantisation paradigm, which includes classical mechanics and relativity. Likewise, classical field theories, such as general relativity and classical electromagnetism, are those that do not use quantum mechanics. In the context of general and special relativity, classical theories are those that obey Galilean relativity.

Among the branches of theory included in classical physics are:

In contrast to classical physics, “modern physics” is a slightly looser term which may refer to just quantum physics or to 20th and 21st century physics in general. Modern physics includes quantum theory and relativity, when applicable.

A physical system can be described by classical physics when it satisfies conditions such that the laws of classical physics are approximately valid. In practice, physical objects ranging from those larger than atoms and molecules, to objects in the macroscopic and astronomical realm, can be well-described (understood) with classical mechanics. Beginning at the atomic level and lower, the laws of classical physics break down and generally do not provide a correct description of nature. Electromagnetic fields and forces can be described well by classical electrodynamics at length scales and field strengths large enough that quantum mechanical effects are negligible running belt. Unlike quantum physics, classical physics is generally characterized by the principle of complete determinism, although deterministic interpretations of quantum mechanics do exist.

From the point of view of classical physics as being non-relativistic physics, the predictions of general and special relativity are significantly different than those of classical theories, particularly concerning the passage of time, the geometry of space, the motion of bodies in free fall, and the propagation of light cheap goalie gloves. Traditionally, light was reconciled with classical mechanics by assuming the existence of a stationary medium through which light propagated, the luminiferous aether, which was later shown not to exist.

Mathematically, classical physics equations are those in which Planck’s constant does not appear. According to the correspondence principle and Ehrenfest’s theorem, as a system becomes larger or more massive the classical dynamics tends to emerge, with some exceptions, such as superfluidity. This is why we can usually ignore quantum mechanics when dealing with everyday objects and the classical description will suffice. However, one of the most vigorous on-going fields of research in physics is classical-quantum correspondence. This field of research is concerned with the discovery of how the laws of quantum physics give rise to classical physics found at the limit of the large scales of the classical level.

Today a computer performs millions of arithmetic operations in seconds to solve a classical differential equation, while Newton (one of the fathers of the differential calculus) would take hours to solve the same equation by manual calculation, even if he were the discoverer of that particular equation.

Computer modeling is essential for quantum and relativistic physics. Classic physics is considered the limit of quantum mechanics for large number of particles. On the other hand, classic mechanics is derived from relativistic mechanics. For example, in many formulations from special relativity, a correction factor (v/c)2 appears, where v is the velocity of the object and c is the speed of light. For velocities much smaller than that of light, one can neglect the terms with c2 and higher that appear. These formulas then reduce to the standard definitions of Newtonian kinetic energy and momentum. This is as it should be, for special relativity must agree with Newtonian mechanics at low velocities. Computer modeling has to be as real as possible. Classical physics would introduce an error as in the superfluidity case football socks sale. In order to produce reliable models of the world, we can not use classic physics. It is true that quantum theories consume time and computer resources, and the equations of classical physics could be resorted to provide a quick solution, but such a solution would lack reliability.

Computer modeling would use only the energy criteria to determine which theory to use: relativity or quantum theory, when attempting to describe the behavior of an object running reflective belt. A physicist would use a classical model to provide an approximation before more exacting models are applied and those calculations proceed.

In a computer model, there is no need to use the speed of the object if classical physics is excluded. Low energy objects would be handled by quantum theory and high energy objects by relativity theory.

Swedish carpets and rugs

Carpets and rugs have been handmade knotted wool in Sweden for centuries, taking on many different forms and functions over the course of time. Rugs woven in the traditional Oriental manner, especially in the Ottoman Empire and points east, were originally brought to Sweden over trade routes as early as the early Middle Ages. In the centuries that followed, Swedish rug-makers often infused their works with themes and motifs traditionally found in Oriental rugs. Eventually, Swedish rug-makers would begin to use Oriental rug-making techniques, but themes and motifs more consistent with the artistic and cultural heritage of Sweden. By the early modern periods, rugs had long been an important avenue of art – especially folk art – in Swedish culture. By the beginning of the twentieth century, the craft was seen as being an important artistic and cultural practice throughout Sweden, and designers began to make rugs that had a broad international appeal. Swedish rugs from the mid-twentieth century remain among the most desirable and sought after in the rug world.

The history of Swedish rugs reads similarly to the broader history of Scandinavian rugs, though with several distinctive, important developments. First, it is important to note that Swedish people were creating weaves for a very long time before the craft began to be taken seriously as a valid avenue of Swedish artistic expression. One of the most important Swedish rug-making techniques to have widespread practice and implementation was that which resulted in Rollakans, which are traditional flat weaves. Very popular among Swedish folk-artists meat tenderizer liquid, Rollakans were often used as bed coverings and for general display purposes, and, as such, often featured appealing all-over patterns. Such rugs are very highly sought after in today’s rug market due to their perception as quintessentially Swedish compositions.

A similar unique development in the history of Swedish rug-making is the rya, a very distinctive Swedish style of rug. Unlike its cousin the flat-woven Rollakan, the rya is a long-pile sort of rug that was originally developed for use as protection from the harsh arctic climate of Sweden. Utilizing the weaving and knotting techniques that were introduced into early Middle Ages Sweden by travellers and traders from the Ottoman Empire, Swedish rug-makers began in earnest the manufacture of the rugs that would become ryas. These long-pile pieces were utilized for a myriad of reasons over time liquid meat tenderizer, filling various roles in Swedish culture in society as tastes and sensibilities evolved.

Despite not being a craft of Swedish origin football socks sale, centuries of rug-making firmly established the practice as an important Swedish cultural tradition. By the modern period, Sweden had a long, established heritage of rug-making. By the early twentieth century, artists and designers throughout Sweden were beginning to work with rugs, suddenly elevating the craft from traditional folk-art to a serious international phenomenon. Designers such as Märta Måås-Fjetterström and Barboro Nilsson began designing rugs in the 1920s, and by the 1940s Swedish rugs were being hungrily acquired by collectors all over the world. From its humble origins gloves goalkeeper, Swedish rug-making had transformed to a cottage industry of tremendous breadth and depth, while simultaneously exercising tremendous influence over the aesthetic direction of the rug-making world.

After being endorsed by such titans of modernism and proponents of modern design as Le Corbusier, Ray Eames and Frank Lloyd Wright, Swedish rugs quickly became a highly desirable commodity. Swedish Country Interiors by Edie van Breems The traditional geometric and abstract designs and the long pile of Rya rugs were considered especially desirable due to their perceived aesthetic complement to the hardwood, metal, and sparseness favored by modern designers. As homeowners began to transition toward a preference for modern aesthetics, it became difficult for Sweden to keep up with the demand for high-quality Ryas and other rugs. The design studio founded by Märta Måås-Fjetterström in 1919 – and later headed by Barbro Nilsson after Mass-Fjetterstrom’s death in 1941 – became an important center for Swedish rug design, and remains so today.