Fulfordgate

Fulfordgate was an association football ground in Fulford, York, England, and was the home of York City Football Club from 1922 to 1932. The ground was located next to Heslington Lane, and was purchased by York for £2,000 following their formation in 1922.

The club’s first two home matches were played at another venue as Fulfordgate was not ready, and the ground hosted its first match against Mansfield Town in September 1922. The highest attendance at the ground was 12,721, which came against Sheffield United in an FA Cup match in 1931. York decided to move to Bootham Crescent, which had been vacated by York Cricket Club in 1932, as Fulfordgate was relatively inaccessible. The ground was sold and developed as a housing estate, and Eastward Avenue now lies at its former location.

Following York City F.C.’s formation in 1922, the club purchased 8 acres (3.2 ha) of land for £2,000 in Heslington Lane, Fulford, York. This was in the south-east of the city in a rural setting, which was surrounded by hawthorn hedges and was well drained. The land was known as Gate Fulford, which was reversed to become known as Fulfordgate. As the ground was not ready, York played their first two home matches at Mille Crux, Haxby Road, which was owned by Messrs Rowntree & Company Limited. The first match played at Fulfordgate was a 4–1 victory over Mansfield Town on 20 September 1922, which only went ahead after director John Fisher paid the requisite deposit of £180. When York applied for election into the Football League in 1927, they stated that Fulfordgate was “splendidly drained, well equipped, spacious and capable of being extended to hold up to 40,000 spectators”. By the time of the club’s admission into the Football League in 1929, the ground was estimated hold a capacity of 17,000. When York set their then-record attendance of 12,583 against Newcastle United in an FA Cup third round replay on 15 January 1930, approximately 4,000 supporters had to be turned away as the gates were closed an hour before kick-off. York finished the 1929–30 season with an average attendance of 5,247, higher than 17 other Third Division North clubs.

Concern was expressed at York’s poor support towards the end of their third season in the Football League, and director G. W. Halliday believed the only solution was a change of ground. A major problem was the ground’s relatively inaccessible location, and in early 1932, York held preliminary discussions about moving to Bootham Crescent, which had been vacated by York Cricket Club. A special meeting of the shareholders was held, in which chairman Arthur Brown drew attention to gate receipts figures in Fulfordgate’s three Football League seasons, which represented average crowds of 4,000 and a deficit on the balance sheet. It was pointed out by Halliday that within one mile (1.6 km) of Bootham Crescent the population was 30 thermos funtainer drink bottle,000, whereas it was only 3,000 for a similar radius of Fulfordgate. The directors were satisfied that the new ground would fulfil all requirements, although there was some opposition to the move. Two former directors argued that attendances at many grounds had fallen during the Great Depression, and that the approaches and surrounds to Bootham Crescent were limited. Following much discussion, the decision to move to lease Bootham Crescent was approved by 115 votes to 37, and Fulfordgate was sold and developed as a housing estate. Today, Eastward Avenue occupies the area where the ground once stood.

Fulfordgate did not initially have any covered stands, and the dressing rooms consisted of an old army hut, before open stands were bought from York Race Committee. The ground was gradually built up and improved how to make tender beef steak, and covered accommodation was available after two years. In 1927, new turnstiles were installed and stronger fencing was built around the pitch, which made it more difficult for spectators to surmount it and access the pitch. Nine-tier terracing replaced the old banking behind one of the goals, the covered Popular Stand was extended to hold 1,000 supporters and there a small seated stand was erected.

Fulfordgate was located in the south-east of York, away from the city centre. It was a large distance from York railway station, while the tram service to Fulford only had one track, and the loop system for tramcars passing each other further restricted the service. During the ground’s existence, bus routes had not been fully developed and car ownership was not yet become common how to use a lime squeezer; it was not easy for the majority of supporters to reach.

The ground hosted the Yorkshire Flower Show and Gala in June 1924, after the event had been held at Bootham Park for the previous 60 years. It annually hosted Faber Cup races for the York Harriers, which consisted of six-mile courses over grass with hurdles, on a number of occasions. An amateur international was held at the ground when England played Ireland on 14 November 1931.

The highest attendance at Fulfordgate before York’s election into the Football League was 8,318 for a match between York Boys and Brighton Boys in an English Schools’ Trophy semi-final on 12 May 1928. The record highest attendance at the ground was set on 14 January 1931, when 12,721 saw Sheffield United play York in an FA Cup third round replay. The highest attendance in the Football League was 10,120, for a Third Division North match against Port Vale on 21 April 1930. The record lowest attendance for a Football League match was 1,735, when York played New Brighton on 25 April 1931 in the Third Division North. The lowest attendance at the ground for any first-team fixture was 1,500 for an FA Cup preliminary round match against Maltby Main on 23 September 1925.

The highest seasonal average attendance at Fulfordgate whilst York were in the Football League was 5,279 in 1929–30. The lowest seasonal average attendance in the Football League was 3,906 in 1930–31. York’s biggest margin of victory at Fulfordgate was by seven goals, when they recorded a 7–0 win over Alfreton Town in the Midland League on 11 September 1926. Their biggest margin of defeat at the ground was by three goals, when they were beaten 6–3 by Notts County reserves in the Midland League on 5 September 1928. The most goals scored in a match was 10 on 23 February 1929, when York defeated Worksop Town 8–2 in the Midland League.

Sue Ion

Dame Sue Ion (pronounced /iːɒn/) DBE, FRS, FREng (née Burrows; 3 February 1955) is a British engineer and an expert advisor on the nuclear power industry.

Born Susan Elizabeth Burrows on 3 February 1955 in Cumbria, she is the daughter of Lawrence James Burrows, a planning officer for British Rail, and Doris Burrows (née Cherry), a secretary.

Ion was educated at Penwortham Girls Grammar School near Preston, Lancashire in the same year as Nancy Rothwell. As a young student, she enjoyed science, which her parents encouraged by letting her do chemistry experiments in the family’s kitchen. At school, Ion, took a leadership role as Head Girl from 1972-1973 and deputy leader of the orchestra. At 16, Ion won a book on atomic energy as a prize for her O-levels in science, which helped inspire her enthusiasm for the topic. “When I was in school,” Ion says, “it was quite different. You were given every encouragement possible to do science subjects if you were interested in them”.

Ion went on to study Materials Science at Imperial College London, gaining a first class Bachelor of Science degree and a PhD in Metallurgy in 1979. She taught in an inner London school while completing her doctorate, and used supplies from the college laboratories in her lessons to help students become enthusiastic about the industry. “Where there is no vision,” she says, “the people perish”.

In 1979, Ion was first hired as a technical officer at British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL). At the time, she and one other woman were the only females working in the chemical engineering department how to make tender beef steak. In 1992, she was promoted to Executive Director of Technology, a position Ion held within the organization until 2006 how to use a meat mallet.

During this time, nuclear or atomic energy was viewed as a valuable source of energy, along with the existing coal industry, and a necessary part of rebuilding post-war Britain. It was, according to Ion, an exciting industry with a vibrant research and development program and great prospects. As she told Jim Al-Khalili in a 2013 interview for BBC4 Radio, “Nothing over time has changed my view of that”.

As technical director of BNFL, Ion held a seat on Tony Blair’s Council for Science and Technology and has been credited with persuading Blair to change Labour’s official government’s policy on nuclear power. Ion’s work, along with David King, took about 10 years of educating government officials to consider the scientific evidence surrounding the issues of nuclear power and renewable energy to inform policy. Ion also helped advise Gordon Brown on long-term energy policies.

In 2004, Ion was among 180 women invited to a “Women’s Theme Day” luncheon at Buckingham Palace in recognition of her contributions to the field of science and technology.

Ion was elected a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering in 1996 and was a vice president from 2002-2008.

In 2006, Ion was appointed visiting professor of Imperial College and admitted to the Fellowship of the college in 2005.

Ion has studied energy supplies for more than 30 years. She spent a lot of time early in her career advising government officials about nuclear reactors and countering the negativity caused by the incidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl.

Ion supports the development of smaller, modular versions of nuclear reactors for their economy of size, portability and cost. These smaller reactors would, most likely, be housed on existing nuclear sites licensed for that purpose.

Ion views her biggest challenge is “persuading decades-worth of politicians that nuclear energy is really needed underwater cell phone case.” Her position is that renewable energy sources (particularly wind power), coal and nuclear power will be necessary components of Britain’s energy policy moving forward.

In Ion’s outreach as a spokesperson for the nuclear power industry, she has expressed a belief that more needs to be done to attract women into the field of engineering. She is concerned that some areas of the educational system still view engineering as a subject only for males running belt with water bottle holder. While major institutions may support the idea of females entering the field of science and engineering, Ion notes that grade schools under the current system may not provide the prerequisite coursework early enough in students’ academic careers for them to be successful at university.

Ion supports educational programs that support all students, regardless of gender, to explore science and develop the skills necessary to replace what the Royal Academy of Engineering views as a retiring workforce. In response to a report commissioned by the Nuclear Industry Association (NIA) discussing the UK’s plans for future energy production, she cautions: “There will be an unprecedented demand for new infrastructure to support the changes in the energy industry. There are not enough people going into university to study engineering and provide all the turbine specialists, heavy electrical engineers and construction engineers that will be required”.

She married John Albert Ion in 1980 and lives in Leyland, Lancashire.