Kyle Katarn

Kyle Katarn is a fictional character in the Star Wars expanded universe, who appears in the five video games of the Jedi Knight series, the video game Star Wars: Lethal Alliance, and in several books and other material. In the Jedi Knight series, Katarn debuts in Star Wars: Dark Forces, appears in Star Wars Jedi Knight: Dark Forces II, is one of two playable characters in Star Wars Jedi Knight: Mysteries of the Sith, appears in Star Wars Jedi Knight II: Jedi Outcast and is a major NPC in Star Wars Jedi Knight: Jedi Academy youth football uniform designer.

Katarn was originally a member of the Galactic Empire, before becoming a mercenary for hire. He regularly worked for the Rebel Alliance and later became a member of the New Republic as well as a skilled Jedi and an instructor at the Jedi Academy, second only to Luke Skywalker.

Katarn has been well received by most critics, with GameSpot including him in a vote for the greatest video game character of all time, where he was eliminated in round two, when facing Lara Croft.

Katarn first appeared in Star Wars: Dark Forces, where he was introduced as a former Imperial officer who became a mercenary-for-hire after learning the Empire was responsible for the death of his father. As a mercenary, he regularly worked for the Rebel Alliance, where he was secretly dispatched by Mon Mothma on missions deemed too dangerous or sensitive for actual Rebel operatives. The game begins shortly before the events of the film A New Hope, with Katarn single-handedly infiltrating an Imperial facility on the planet Danuta to retrieve the plans for the first Death Star. The plans would eventually be forwarded to Princess Leia, leading to the destruction of the Death Star. One year later, Katarn is employed to investigate the “Dark Trooper” project, a secret Imperial research initiative manufacturing powerful robotic stormtroopers to attack Alliance strongholds stainless steel meat pounder. After several adventures (including encounters with Jabba the Hutt and Boba Fett), Katarn terminates the Dark Trooper Project and kills its creator, General Rom Mohc, aboard his flagship, the Arc Hammer.

Star Wars Jedi Knight: Dark Forces II takes place one year after the events of the film, Return of the Jedi. It begins with 8t88, an information droid, telling Katarn about the Dark Jedi Jerec, who killed Katarn’s father, Morgan, in his efforts to find the Valley of the Jedi, a focal point for Jedi power and a Jedi burial ground. 8t88 also tells Katarn of a data disk recovered from Morgan after his death which can only be translated by a droid in Morgan’s home. After 8t88 leaves Katarn to be killed, Katarn escapes, tracks down 8t88 and recovers the disk. He then heads to his home planet of Sulon and has the disk translated. The disk contains a message from Morgan, telling Katarn his must pursue the ways of the Jedi, and giving him a lightsaber. Katarn also learns that seven Dark Jedi are attempting to use the power found in the Valley to rebuild the Empire. Kyle eventually kills all seven Dark Jedi and saves the Valley.

Star Wars Jedi Knight: Mysteries of the Sith, an expansion pack for Dark Forces II, takes place approximately five years later. The game focuses on former Imperial assassin Mara Jade, who has come under Kyle’s tutelage as she trains to be a Jedi. During this period, while investigating Sith ruins on Dromund Kaas, Kyle comes under the influence of the Dark Side of the Force, but Jade is able to turn him back to the Light.

Star Wars Jedi Knight II: Jedi Outcast is set three years after Mysteries of the Sith. Feeling vulnerable to another fall to the Dark Side, Kyle has chosen to forsake the Force and has returned to his former mercenary ways. Whilst on a mission for Mon Mothma, Kyle’s partner, Jan Ors is apparently murdered at the hands of two Dark Jedi, Desann and Tavion. Determined to avenge her death, Katarn returns to the Valley of the Jedi to regain his connection to the Force. Taking back his lightsaber from Luke Skywalker, he sets out to track down Desann. After escaping from a trap with Lando Calrissian’s help, Katarn heads to Cloud City and interrogates Tavion, who tells him that Jan is not dead at all. Desann simply pretended to kill her knowing Katarn would return to the Valley, at which point Desann followed him so as to infuse his soldiers with the Force and reinstall the Imperial Remnant as rulers of the galaxy. Katarn spares Tavion’s life and stows away on Desann’s ship, the Doomgiver. After rescuing Jan, Katarn defeats the military scientist, Galak Fyyar, who tells him that Desann plans to use his Jedi infused soldiers to attack the Jedi Academy on Yavin IV. Katarn enters the Academy and defeats Desann. After the battle, he tells Luke Skywalker that he is going to stay a Jedi, confident of his strength and dedication to the Light Side.

Star Wars Jedi Knight: Jedi Academy takes place a year after Jedi Outcast, and is the first game in the series in which Katarn is not a playable character. The game begins as he is appointed master of two new students, Jaden Korr and Rosh Penin double wall stainless steel water bottle. Rosh soon begins to feel held back and comes to resent Katarn. It is soon discovered that a Sith cult named the Disciples of Ragnos are stealing Force energy from various locations across the galaxy via a scepter. Along with others, Katarn and his students embark on a number of missions in an effort to discover what the cult are hoping to do with the powers they steal. During one such mission, while investigating the ruins of the planet formerly known as Byss, Rosh is captured and converted to the Dark Side by the cult’s leader, Tavion (Desann’s former apprentice). Jaden and Katarn escape and conclude that Tavion is storing the stolen Dark Force energy in the scepter in order to use it to resurrect an ancient Sith master, Marka Ragnos. After receiving a distress message from Rosh, who has returned to the Light Side and is now a prisoner, Katarn and Jaden go to rescue him, only to discover that the distress signal was a scheme to lure the two in. After defeating Rosh, Jaden is confronted with a choice: kill him and turn to the Dark Side, or spare him and remain on the Light Side. If the player kills Rosh, the game ends with Jaden killing Tavion, taking the scepter and fleeing, with Katarn heading out in pursuit. If the player chooses not to kill Rosh, the game ends with Jaden killing Tavion and defeating the spirit of Ragnos.

In The New Jedi Order series of novels, Katarn becomes the Jedi Academy’s foremost battlemaster, a close friend of Luke Skywalker, and a respected Jedi Master. During the Yuuzhan Vong invasion, Katarn helps develop strategies to use against the invaders, and participates in the rescue of human captives from the Imperial Remnant world Ord Sedra. Near the end of the war, the living planet Zonama Sekot agrees to help the Republic; Katarn is one of several Jedi Knights who bonds to seed-partners and is provided with Sekotan starships to use in Sekot’s defence.

During Troy Denning’s The Dark Nest trilogy (The Joiner King, The Unseen Queen and The Swarm War), Katarn is one of four Jedi Masters who attempts to destroy the Dark Nest. Katarn also speaks his mind during a Master’s Council session, where he stands up to Chief of State Cal Omas. He, along with Corran Horn and other Masters, believe that Jaina Solo and Zekk could be the next leaders of the Dark Nest. In The Swarm War (the final part of the trilogy), Katarn leads a squadron of Jedi Stealth X’s against the Killiks.

Katarn also appears in Karen Traviss’ Legacy of the Force novels Bloodlines, Sacrifice, Exile and Fury, as a Jedi Master participating in Council meetings. In Bloodlines, he helps to point out the “embarrassment” to the Jedi Order of Jacen Solo’s actions in apprehending Corellians on Coruscant. In Exile, he plays devil’s advocate regarding Leia Organa’s supposed betrayal of the Galactic Alliance, although he reasserts his loyalty to Leia by being the first to formally declare his faith in her at the meeting’s conclusion. Katarn plays a much larger role in Fury, leading a team of Jedi against Jacen Solo in a capture-or-kill mission. After a fierce four-way lightsaber duel, Katarn is severely wounded and the mission ends in failure.

Katarn’s adventures are also told in three hardcover graphic story albums written by William C. Dietz, which were adapted into audio dramatizations; Soldier for the Empire, Rebel Agent and Jedi Knight.

Katarn also appears in the Star Wars Roleplaying Game and is a premiere figure of “The New Jedi Order” faction in the Wizards of the Coast Star Wars Miniatures. The Wizards of the Coast web series, The Dark Forces Saga, highlights his background, as well as those of most of the other heroes and villains found in the games.

He also appears in the video game Star Wars: Empire at War, where he can be used in the ‘Skirmish’ battle mode as a special ‘hero’ unit. The game is set between Episode III and Episode IV, and, as such, Katarn cannot use force powers.

The popularity of characters from Dark Forces resulted in LucasArts licensing toys based on the game. Hasbro produced Kyle Katarn and Dark Trooper toys, which are among the few Expanded Universe items to be turned into action figures.

Originally, the protagonist of Dark Forces was to be Luke Skywalker. However the developers of the game realized that this would add constraints to gameplay and storyline, and instead a new character, Kyle Katarn, was created. For Jedi Academy, an early decision made during development was whether or not to have Kyle Katarn as the playable character. This was due to the character already being a powerful Jedi Knight, and, as such, starting off with the force skills would affect the gameplay. To resolve this issue, the developers chose to make the playable character a student in the Jedi Academy. Katarn was then made an instructor in the academy and integral to the plot to ensure that Jedi Academy built upon the existing Jedi Knight series storyline.

Katarn was voiced by Nick Jameson in Star Wars: Dark Forces glass gym water bottle. He was portrayed by Jason Court in the full motion video sequences of Dark Forces II. The in-game model was modeled after Court to maintain consistency. In Mysteries of Sith, Jedi Outcast and Jedi Academy, Katarn’s appearance is exclusively a polygonal model, without any FMV scenes, in which he is designed to look like a slightly older Court. In Mysteries of the Sith, he is voiced by Rino Romano, and in the two subsequent games by Jeff Bennett. For the audio dramatizations, he is portrayed by Randal Berger. In Pendant Productions’ Blue Harvest, Katarn is voiced by Scott Barry.

Previewing the PlayStation version of Star Wars: Dark Forces, Electronic Gaming Monthly called Katarn “a perfect character to star in a first-person shoot-‘em-up in the Star Wars universe”, and said the character has the same rogue-with-a-heart appeal as Han Solo.

GameDaily’s Robert Workman listed Katarn as one of his favourite Star Wars video game characters. IGN placed him as their 22nd top Star Wars character, praising him as “a gamer’s reliable blank state,” a feature which they felt made him one of the most “human” Star Wars characters. They also stated that Katarn’s endearence with fans was because of his “mishmash of quirks and dispositions.” In 2009, IGN’s Jesse Schedeen argued that the character should not appear in the then upcoming Star Wars live-action TV series, feeling that “Katarn isn’t very interesting without his Jedi abilities,” and that deeply exploring his past was not really warranted. Schedeen also included Katarn as one of his favourite Star Wars heroes and video game sword masters. In GameSpot’s vote for the all-time greatest videogame hero, Katarn was eliminated in round two when he faced Lara Croft, garnering 27.5% of the votes. In round one he defeated Dig Dug, with 67.6% of the votes.

On the other hand, GamesRadar was critical of Katarn, calling him the third worst character in video gaming, saying “he’s bearded, he’s boring, he’s bland and his name is Kyle Katarn,” comparing his outfit to that of a “beige-obsessed disco cowboy.” They also commented that while “originally a genuinely interesting character in the Han Solo mold,” they felt that the character had become “emotionless” after he gained force powers.

Cortes de Burgos (1308)

Cortes de Burgos de 1308. Cortes del reino de Castilla celebradas en la ciudad de Burgos en 1308, durante el reinado de Fernando IV de Castilla.

Fernando IV intentó conseguir en estas Cortes, entre otras cosas, la reorganización de la Casa Real, la restauración del orden en todo su territorio, alcanzar un equilibrio entre los gastos e ingresos de la hacienda, y castigar los crímenes y delitos cometidos en la Corte.

En 1308 la nobleza consiguió imponer su voluntad a Fernando IV, quien ese mismo año se vio obligado a suscribir con los nobles el Pacto de Grijota, que le obligó a destituir a sus principales consejeros y oficiales, y a reemplazarlos por aquellos que los nobles dispusieron. Éstos se quejaban de que Fernando IV administraba mal la hacienda real, de que existía un profundo descontento popular, y del que el rey era aconsejado por malos hombres, y diversos autores señalan que el objetivo de la nobleza no era suprimir la monarquía, sino tener una mayor participación en las tareas de gobierno junto al rey.

Diversos autores destacan que la renovación de los principales cargos de la Corte acordada en Grijota fue tan completa, que la Crónica de Fernando IV manifestó que «de quantos oficiales el Rey avía non le dejaron ninguno» y, de ese modo, Fernán Remón o Romero, que era canciller del infante Juan de Castilla, tío de Fernando IV, pasó a ser el canciller del rey, y Fernán Ruiz de Saldaña y Rodrigo Álvarez de las Asturias fueron nombrados adelantados mayores de Castilla y de Galicia socks cheap, respectivamente. Y poco después, el 11 de mayo de 1308, Fernando IV y su madre, la reina María de Molina, firmaron un acuerdo de paz y amistad en Valencia de Don Juan con el infante Juan y con Don Juan Manuel, nieto de Fernando III de Castilla, y el rey Jaime II de Aragón, por solicitud de los cuatro firmantes love football shirt, se comprometió a combatir a cualquiera de ellos si quebrantaba el acuerdo, y quedó confirmada, según diversos autores, su hegemonía en la política peninsular, gracias a la victoria de la nobleza en Castilla, como señalan diversos autores.

Las Cortes de Burgos de 1308 fueron una asamblea plena a las que el rey convocó a los ricoshombres, maestres de las órdenes militares, prelados y hombres buenos de las villas y ciudades de los reinos de Castilla, León y las Extremaduras. A las Cortes de Burgos, que comenzaron probablemente a mediados de mayo y finalizaron a mediados de julio, asistieron la reina María de Molina y la reina Constanza de Portugal, esposa del rey, el infante Juan, tío de Fernando IV y adelantado mayor de la frontera de Andalucía, el infante Pedro, hermano de Fernando IV, Don Juan Manuel stainless steel meat pounder, adelantado mayor del reino de Murcia, Diego López V de Haro, señor de Vizcaya y mayordomo mayor del rey, Gonzalo Díaz Palomeque, arzobispo de Toledo, y los obispos de León, Zamora, Mondoñedo y Osma. Y también asistieron Juan Osórez, maestre de la Orden de Santiago, y otros prelados, ricoshombres y hombres buenos de las villas y ciudades de Castilla, León y las Extremaduras.

La historiadora Ana Arranz Guzmán señala la posibilidad de que asistiera también a las reuniones de Cortes Pedro Rodríguez Quijada, obispo de Burgos, pues el rey Fernando IV concedió a dicho prelado y al cabildo de la catedral de Burgos, como contrapartida por las 1.000 doblas de oro que le prestaron, 2.000 maravedís anuales sobre los 6.000 que el concejo burgalés debía pagar al rey en concepto de portazgo y montazgo. El magnate castellano Juan Núñez II de Lara, señor de Lara, no asistió a estas Cortes porque se hallaba enemistado con Fernando IV. Un año antes, una vez finalizadas las Cortes de Valladolid de 1307, surgió un conflicto entre Fernando IV y dicho magnate, a quien el monarca ordenó que abandonara el reino, pero el señor de Lara se negó a ello y se preparó para resistir a las tropas del rey en el municipio de Tordehumos, que fue asediado por Fernando IV. No obstante, el rey se vio obligado al final a levantar el asedio, en febrero de 1308, y a negociar con el magnate rebelde.

El principal asunto debatido en las Cortes de Burgos de 1308 fue el de intentar equilibrar la balanza presupuestaria de la Corona. Cuando se calcularon las rentas reales se descubrió que eran insuficientes para pagar las soldadas a los nobles y cubrir los gastos de la Casa Real, ya que había un déficit de 4.500.000 maravedís. La Crónica de Fernando IV señala que la reina María de Molina propuso que se recaudase un servicio extraordinario, pero el infante Juan de Castilla, tío de Fernando IV y cuñado de María de Molina, sostuvo que era preferible que los fondos necesarios se recaudasen, aunque solamente durante un año, directamente de los impuestos de los concejos, de las multas impuestas a los que sacasen del reino cosas vedadas, como caballos o metales preciosos, de las demandas sobre usuras, y de otras partidas similares. No obstante, diversos historiadores señalan que con la propuesta del infante Juan, que probablemente trataba de evitar un enfrentamiento con las Cortes, no hubiera sido posible recaudar ni la mitad de los fondos que la Corona necesitaba.

La Crónica de Fernando IV señala que el rey apoyó la propuesta de su tío, el infante Juan, pero el ordenamiento de las Cortes de Burgos de 1308 revela que Fernando IV rebajó las soldadas a los nobles, anuló algunas cartas por las que cedía el portazgo y otros impuestos a determinadas personas, revocó algunas exenciones otorgadas por él mismo o por su padre, el rey Sancho IV de Castilla, y devolvió a los concejos, para que pudieran pagar mejor sus impuestos, las aldeas y heredades enajenadas a otros. Y además, el rey intentó aliviar la presión fiscal que soportaban sus súbditos, e impedir los abusos de los recaudadores de impuestos good cheap socks. Las soldadas de los nobles crecieron constantemente en los años siguientes, provocando una notable disminución de los ingresos de la hacienda, y en las Cortes de Carrión de 1317, celebradas durante la minoría de edad de Alfonso XI de Castilla, que fue hijo y sucesor de Fernando IV, se descubrió que el déficit era de a 8.000.000 millones de maravedís, siendo casi el doble del existente en 1308.

Hasta ahora se conocen dos versiones del ordenamiento de las Cortes de Burgos de 1308. Uno de ellos está fechado el 13 de junio de 1308, y fue publicado por Antonio Benavides Fernández de Navarrete en su obra Memorias de Fernando IV de Castilla, pero está incompleto, ya que faltan el preámbulo, varios artículos y se desconoce a quién iba dirigido. El otro ordenamiento conocido está completo y se conserva en el Archivo Municipal de Cuenca, consta de 28 artículos o leyes, y fue otorgado a dicha ciudad el 25 de julio de 1308.

Rohan Hoffmann

Peter D’Rohan Hoffmann (born 14 January 1972) is an Australian-Portuguese rugby union referee and former international player for Portugal. He played as a fly-half and a fullback. One of the best Portuguese players of his generation, he earned nicknames like Zé Rohan and Mister Canguru.

Born in Brisbane, he studied at the Marist College, in Ashgrove, the same rugby school of John Eales. After Ashgrove he played for Brothers Old Boys in Brisbane and for Queensland Schools, Queensland U-19 and Queensland U-21. He was in his second season with Brothers 1st XV when he received the invitation to move to England.

Hoffmann played for London Scottish F socks at wholesale prices.C. in the English Premiership for the season of 1992/93. In August 1993, Scottish coach Andrew Cushing who accumulated functions with head coach of Portugal, invited him to move to Portugal to play a season at Técnico. He remained in the Lisbon team from 1993/94 to 1997/98, where the club won the Portuguese Championship and the Cup of Portugal in 1993/94.

He then moved back to England to play for the professional team of Worcester Warriors, but he wasn’t successful, breaking a leg twice. He decided to return to Portugal, this time to play for Grupo Desportivo Direito, in Lisbon. He won the Portuguese Championship and the Cup of Portugal for the season of 2001/02, and also the Iberian Cup of 2002.

After becoming a Portuguese naturalized citizen how to use a meat tenderizer tool, he decided to represent Portugal. He won 27 caps, from the 64-3 loss to Italy, at 2 March 1996, in Lisbon, for the FIRA Championship, D1, Pool 2, to the 34-21 loss to Spain, at 2 June 2002, in Madrid cheap cotton socks, for the 2003 Rugby World Cup qualifyings. He was one of the top scorers for Portugal during his international career, scoring 7 tries, 2 conversions, 8 penalties and 1 drop goal, 77 points in aggregate.

The high point of his international career was at the 1999 Rugby World Cup qualification, when he scored a 90 meters try against Scotland XV in the 85-11 loss at Murrayfield, at 28 November 1998, in a game where he also scored a drop goal. Portugal lost to Spain by 21-17 1 December 1998, meaning they would have to go to the repechage with Uruguay. Portugal lost both repechage games but it was still their best result at the time.

He started to coach at a young level while still playing, being currently Técnico U-18 head coach. He also started an international referee career, first at a youth level, in 2002, and at the senior level, in 2006. His first international match took place in Monaco, at 11 October 2008 stainless steel meat pounder, between Monaco and Bosnia-Herzegovina.

In December 2012 he was named as part of the 18-man referee team for Super Rugby 2013. His debut was on 1 March 2013 when the Waratahs played the Melbourne Rebels.


Badugi (also known as badougi, paduki or padooki) is a draw poker variant similar to triple draw, with hand-values similar to lowball. The betting structure and overall play of the game is identical to a standard poker game using blinds, but, unlike traditional poker which involves a minimum of five cards, players’ hands contain only four cards at any one time. During each of three drawing rounds, players can trade zero to four cards from their hands for new ones from the deck, in an attempt to form the best badugi hand and win the pot. Badugi is an often gambling game, with the object being to win money in the form of pots. The winner of the pot is the person with the best badugi hand at the conclusion of play (known as the showdown). Badugi is played in cardrooms around the world, as well as online.

There is some controversy over the origin of this game, which has been played at least since the 1980s.[citation needed] Bill Rosmus reports that in the 1980s in Winnipeg, Canada it was played under the name Off Suit Lowball in the back room of pool halls and back room poker clubs.[citation needed] Bryan Micon says he has been told by several Korean players that it was also played in South Korea in the 1980s.[citation needed]

Nick Wedd reports that the Korean word baduk, or badug refers to a black and white pattern—a black and white pet dog may be called “badugi”—which gives rise to the Korean name baduk for the board game Go, played with black and white stones.

Play begins with each player being dealt four cards face down. The hand begins with a “pre-draw” betting round, beginning with the player to the left of the big blind (or the player to the left of the dealer, if no blinds are used) and continuing clockwise. Each player must either call the amount of the big blind (put in an amount equal to the big blind), fold (relinquish any claim to the pot), or raise (put in more money than anyone else, thus requiring others to do the same, or fold).

Once everyone has put the same amount of money in the pot or folded, play proceeds to the draw. Beginning with the first player still in the pot to the left of the dealer, each player may discard any number of cards and receive an equal number of replacement cards (called the “draw”). Replacement cards are dealt before the next player chooses the number of cards to draw. The discarded cards are not returned to the deck but are discarded for the remainder of the hand unless the deck becomes depleted, at which point the discards are reshuffled to reform the deck (this could be in the middle of a draw request, but the deck should first be depleted phone holder running, then reformed after which the draw may continue from the reformed deck).

The first draw is followed by a second betting round. Here players are free to check (not put in any money, but also remain in the hand) until someone bets. Again betting proceeds until all players have put in an equal amount of money or folded. After the second betting round ends, there is another draw followed by a third betting round stainless steel meat pounder. After that there is the final draw, followed by a fourth betting round and the showdown, if necessary.

If at any time all players but one have folded, the sole remaining player is awarded the pot. If there is more than one player remaining at the conclusion of the final betting round, the hands of those players are compared and the player with the best badugi hand is awarded the pot.

Badugi ranks cards low to high as in traditional poker, except with aces low; thereafter, it has a different ranking of hands than traditional poker, with hands having distinct sets of ranks and suits being superior. Then, for sets of equal size, as follows, hands with lower sets of card rank superior (as in lowball).

Specifically, the badugi hand can consist of 1-4 cards of distinct rank and suit, from among the four cards dealt to the player; any duplicated suit or of rank is disregarded.[citation needed] Any four-card badugi hand beats a three-card badugi hand, a three-card hand beats a two-card hand, and a two-card hand beats a one-card hand. A four-card badugi hand that consists of all four suits is called a “badugi”.

Two badugi hands containing the same number of cards are evaluated by comparing the highest card in each hand (where ace is low). As in lowball, the hand with the lower card is superior. If there is a tie for the highest card, the second highest card (if there is one) is compared. If the ranks of all the cards in the badugi hand are the same the two hands tie. Suits are irrelevant in comparison of two hands.

Thus the best possible hand is A234 of four different suits. The worst possible hand is K K K K.

Here are a few further examples:

If one can construct two (or more) different badugi hands with the same four cards (as in the final example), the better badugi hand is evaluated against the other hands. This occurs when there are at least two cards of the same suit one of which is paired. Here disregarding the paired, suited card generates a better hand than disregarding any other card.

Here is a sample deal involving four players. The players’ individual hands will not be revealed until the showdown, to give a better sense of what happens during play:

Compulsory bets: Alice is the dealer. Bob, to Alice’s left, posts a small blind of $1, and Carol posts a big blind of $2.

First betting round: Alice deals four cards face down to each player, beginning with Bob and ending with herself. Ted must act first because he is the first player after the big blind. He cannot check, since the $2 big blind plays as a bet, so he folds. Alice calls the $2. Bob adds an additional $1 to his $1 small blind to call the $2 total. Carol’s blind is “live” (see blind), so she has the option to raise here, but she checks instead, ending the first betting round. The pot now contains $6, $2 from each of three players.

First draw: Each player may now opt to draw up to four cards in an attempt to improve his hand. Bob, who is to the dealer’s immediate left, is given the first chance to draw. Bob discards two cards and receives two replacement cards from the top of the deck. Bob’s discarded cards are not added to the deck vintage meat tenderizer, but removed from play. Carol now also chooses to draw two. Finally, Alice chooses to draw one.

Second betting round: Since there are no forced bets in later betting rounds, Bob is now first to act. He chooses to check, remaining in the hand without betting. Carol bets, adding $2 to the pot. Alice and Bob both call, each adding $2 to the pot. The pot now contains $12.

Second draw: Bob draws one. Carol opts not to draw any cards, keeping the four she has (known as standing pat). Alice draws one.

Third betting round: Bob checks again and Carol bets $4. Alice, this round, raises making the total bet $8. Bob folds and Carol calls the additional $4. The pot now contains $28.

Third draw: Since Bob has folded, Carol is now first to act. She opts to draw one. Alice stands pat (does not draw).

Last betting round: Carol checks and Alice bets $4. Carol calls.

Showdown: Alice shows 2 4 6&nbsp mccormick meat tenderizer;9 for a nine-high badugi (or four card hand). Carol has 3 5 7 8, an eight-high badugi. Carol wins the $36 pot.

In casino play, it is common to use a fixed limit and two blinds. The limit for the first two rounds of betting is called a small bet, while the limit for the third and fourth betting rounds is called a big bet and is generally double the small bet. The small blind is usually equal to half of a small bet, and the big blind is equal to a full small bet.

This game is also played pot-limit, half-pot-limit, and rarely, no-limit. These structures allow for more range in the amounts bet.

Like other card games with a fixed order of play, position can be an important component in badugi strategy. Players who are last to act often have an opportunity to bluff since they are able to observe the actions of other players before they act. In addition, players in late position are able to determine the strength of their hand more accurately by observing the actions of other players.

When drawing one card, there are only ten cards which will fill the badugi, the members of the fourth suit which don’t pair the other three cards. A player holding a badugi can use this to estimate odds. For example, a player with an 8 high hand, knows at most 5 cards (A to 8, less the three pairs) will fill an opponent’s hand.

Another aspect of the strategy of badugi involves the number of people at the table. The more people there are at the table, the more likely there is to be a 4-card badugi. Bluffing with a 2 or 3 card hand is not usually advisable when playing at a 6-player table. When playing with fewer than 4 people, bluffing becomes potentially more effective with a three-card hand.[citation needed]

If a player has a three-card badugi such as A 2 3 3 in the first round, the probability of making a four-card badugi by the final draw is 51%. With a one-card draw, the chance of making a badugi is approximately 21% per draw.

In badugi, the pot odds often justify or contradict making a call or folding a hand.