A Nuggle, or Neugle, was a mythical water horse of primarily Shetland folklore where it was also referred to as a shoepultie or shoopiltee on some parts of the islands. A nocturnal creature that was always of a male gender, there were occasional fleeting mentions of him connected with the Orkney islands but he was more frequently associated with the rivers, streams and lochs of Shetland. He was easily recognised by his distinctive wheel-like tail and, unlike his evil counterparts the Each-uisge or the Nuckelavee, had a fairly gentle disposition being more prone to playing pranks and making mischief rather than having malicious intents.

Norsemen, predominantly from the west coast of Norway, began to settle in Shetland around the beginning of the 9th-century; Norn, the primary language spoken by islanders from then until the late 17th-century – or as late as the mid 18th-century, was heavily influenced by the settlers and, like the folklore of the islands, blended Norse and Scottish characteristics. The Norsemen’s impact on the folklore of the Orkney and Shetland islands was to a much higher degree than that fused through the lore of the Highlands.

The Scottish National Dictionary attributes neugle and its variant spellings – ni(o)gle steel water bottle price, nyogle

Runner Waist Pack

Runner Waist Pack



, nyugl etc – as coming from the Old English nicor, the Old Norse nykr, the Middle Low German or the Middle Dutch water demon, necker. The same publication gives shoopiltee and its spelling variations as adaptations of the Old Norse sjó and piltr meaning sea added to boy or lad.

In An Etymological Glossary of the Shetland and Orkney Dialect Thomas Edmondston lists the creature as a niogle crediting a Gothic derivation from gner for horse and el for water; he also records shoupiltin but merely catalogues it as a triton from Shetland.

Nuggles were water spirits that inhabited the rivers, streams and small lochs of the Shetland islands; they were known as the shoopiltee or the shoepultie in some areas of Shetland particularly in the northern-most islands. Karl Blind, a 19th-century folklorist who regularly wrote about the lore of Shetland, asserts that after extensive enquiries he had only ever heard of the nuggle being on Shetland; there may however be tentative references to it around the lochs and watercourses of Hoy and at Muckle Water on Rousay which are both part of the Orkney archipelago. Tales of nuggles were never recorded on the islands of Yell and Fetlar, parts of the Shetland archipelago. The creatures were also found beside watermills and never strayed very far from water. The entity was capable of assuming many disguises but generally favoured the form of an attractive horse; he never assumed a human form. Nuggles were always male water horses or ponies and were never portrayed as mares. His overall proportions were like those of a generously fed and well conditioned Shetland pony or horse. The colour of his sleek coat ranged from a deep bluish-grey through to a very light, almost white, grey.

Similar equine type creatures are: the evil Each-uisge from the Gaelic folklore of the Scottish Highlands; the Tangies that haunt the coastline and sea shores but reside in the ocean depths; and the Norwegian nøkk. Folklorist Ernest Marwick considers the demonic Nuckelavee, which features in Orcadian folk tales, to also be a relative of the nuggle. Among the characteristics distinguishing the nuggle from his counterparts was his tail which resembled a wheel. The trademark tail made him easily recognisable despite his attempts to hide it between his hind legs so he tended to stay out of sight except at night or just as the sun went down in the twilight hours. Additionally, unlike other corresponding creatures, he was of a gentle disposition, more likely to instil fear rather than attacking islanders although some tales suggest otherwise; according to the author and folklorist Jessie Saxby “he was a more feeble sort”. He liked playing practical jokes and making mischief but was deceitful and not very brave. Spitefulness was not a part of his character and his pranks were tempered with a degree of mercy.

Only magical beings called Finns were able to ride a nuggle without coming to any harm. If the nuggle had successfully tricked an unsuspecting passer-by into mounting him, usually by pretending to be tame and standing tranquilly at the side of a path, he would immediately make for the nearest deep water.

Saxby suggests fear of the nuggle prevented children venturing too close to deep water or watermills and that parents embellished the tale by adding the creature was capable of producing a pleasant tune providing a child stood well away from the water. John Spence, a resident of Lerwick and author of the 1899 publication Shetland Folk-lore, agrees many of the legendary tales of spirits were told as a precaution to keep children out of danger; he further explains the tales originated in bygone times when oral traditions were passed down the generations by grandparents retelling the stories 1 liter glass bottle. Writing in the Journal of American Folklore during 1918 the anthropologist James Teit hypothesises that, as is common with most supernatural creatures, nuggles were thought to be fallen angels.




Radio Televisyen Brunei

Radio Televisyen Brunei es el ente estatal de radiotelevisión del Sultanato de Brunéi. A día de hoy sigue manteniendo el monopolio de las emisiones de televisión y fue la única emisora de radio hasta 1999.

Radio Televisyen Brunei inició oficialmente sus emisiones bajo el nombre de Radio Brunéi el 2 de mayo de 1957 con un mensaje de Eid al-Fitr pronunciado por Su Majestad el Sultán Omar Ali Saifuddien III. Durante los primeros tiempos, la emisión diaria era de 20:00 a 20:45 horas.

En 1959 cheap european football shirts, Radio Brunéi contaba con dos tranmisores: uno en Bandar Seri Begawan, y otro de 20 kW en Tutong que proporcionaba señal para la mayor parte del sultanato, ambos emitiendo en una longitud de onda de 242 metros (1240 kHz).

Entre principios y mediados de la década de 1960, se aplicaron algunos cambios y se amplió el número de emisores con objeto de mejorar la cobertura. En 1960, el emisor de la capital pasó a transmitir en 309 m. 970 kHz. Poco después, se instaló un emisor en Seria (Belait) de 1,5 kW de potencia en la frecuencia de 1100 kHz.

En el año 1964 se inician las emisiones en onda corta desde Berakas (cerca de Bandar Seri Begawan), mediante un transmisor de 10 kW de la firma Gates, operando en la frecuencia de 4865 kHz. Más tarde, en 1970 michigan football uniforms, se añadió otro transmisor en Tutong que emitía en la frecuencia de 7215 kHz. A mediados de los setenta, el transmisor de Tutong cambió de emplazamiento, ubicándose en Berakas, para dejar de transmitir a finales de los setenta. Estos emisores de onda corta nunca estuvieron configurados para difundir al exterior, sino para garantizar al 100% la cobertura de los programas domésticos hasta el último rincón de la nación, dado el difícil e inusual perímetro del territorio bruneano. Una vez se habían instalado dos potentes emisores de onda media, que cubrían más que sobradamente el norte de la isla de Borneo, la difusión en ondas cortas era redundante.

Hacia 1974, Radio Televisyen Brunei contaba con 171 empleados.

El 1 de marzo de 1977 comenzaron las emisiones regulares en frecuencia modulada estéreo desde Brunéi y Muara. Hasta ese momento, las emisiones experimentales en frecuencia modulada (que habían comenzado en 1965), habían sido a través de un emisor de 15 vatios en la capital. Asimismo, en ese mismo año comenzaron a funcionar dos centros emisores de onda media de 200 kW cada uno, en las frecuencias de 549 y 675 kHz instalados en Tutong y en Serasa, Brunéi y Muara, respectivamente. La utilización de estos emisores se canceló a mediados de la década de 2000.

Radio Televisyen Brunei comenzó la emisión en pruebas de televisión el 1 de febrero de 1975. Las emisiones regulares comenzaron el 1 de marzo de 1975 desde el distrito de Brunéi y Muara. El 9 de julio de 1975 el Sultán de Brunei Hassanal Bolkiah inauguró oficialmente las emisiones de RTB1 steel water bottle price. En aquél entonces, sólo tres operarios mantenían las emisiones de televisión. A partir de 1980 se empezó a emitir desde unos estudios de televisión apropiados; hasta esa fecha se utilizaban dependencias de la emisora de radio.

El 1 de marzo de 1976 fue la primera vez que se realizaba una emisión desde fuera de los estudios, que consistió en la retransmisión de la fiesta de cumpleaños de Su Majestad. La inversión del proyecto tuvo un coste de 35 millones de dólares de Brunéi.

RTB produce cinco canales de televisión:

Aparte de los canales de televisión Rose Tennis Bracelet, Radio Televisyen Brunei opera cinco canales de radio:

Radio Televisyen Brunei ha logrado a lo largo de sus años como empresa de televisión varios acuerdos para comercializar u operar otros negocios. algunas de esas negociaciones son las siguientes: