Irsee Abbey

Irsee Abbey, also the Imperial Abbey of Irsee (German: Reichsabtei Irsee), was a Benedictine abbey located at Irsee near Kaufbeuren in Bavaria water in bpa free bottles. The self-ruling imperial abbey was secularized in the course of the German mediatization of 1802–1803 and its territory annexed to Bavaria. The buildings of the former abbey now house a conference and training centre for Bavarian Swabia.

According to tradition, the monastery, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, was founded in 1182 by Margrave Heinrich von Ursin-Ronsberg, to house a community that had grown up around a local hermit. The monastery was first established at the long-abandoned Burg Ursin, the margrave’s ancestral castle, where St. Stephen Church’s cemetery is now located. A few years later, the monks headed by their first abbot Cuomo, decided to build a new monastery in the valley below where water was more readily available. The original name Ursin or Ursinium was eventually changed to Irsee.

The small abbey’s community averaged 6 monks during its first century of existence, but this number was reduced to a single monk at one time during the troubled 14th century when Irsee came close to collapse due to poor harvest, famine, war and excessive expenses by pleasure-loving abbots. It was saved only by the intervention in 1373 of Anna von Ellerbach, the second founder, sister of the Bishop of Augsburg, and her appointee, abbot Conrad III, known for his extreme frugality. Prosperity was restored within 20 years and during the late Middle Ages fabric defuzzer, Irsee Abbey had become one of the major abbeys in the diocese of Augsburg.

The abbey was nearly obliterated during the German Peasants’ War and again during the Thirty Years’ War. It was ravaged no less than five times by Swedish troops and then devastated by Imperial Croat troops and French troops. Its library as well as its archives were destroyed. For many years the monastery was so destitute that it could not accommodate even half a dozen monks. The abbey was finally able to put itself back on a stable footing in the later 17th century.

Irsee recuperated quickly but in 1662 the powerful prince-abbot of Kempten purchased the right of advocacy (German: Vogteirechte), which limited the autonomy of the abbey. In 1694, following the election of the energetic Romanus Köpfle as the new abbot in 1692, Irsee succeeded in obtaining the status of an Imperial abbey, which it will keep until it was dissolved in 1802.

As an imperial abbey Irsee enjoyed Imperial immediacy. While its small territory covered 118 square kilometers and 22 villages and hamlets, its abbot ruled over 3200 to 4200 subjects. The abbot had seat and voice on the Bench of the Swabian prelates at the Imperial Diet. In case of a declared war, the abbot was required by the Swabian Circle to supply a contingent of one officer and 61 infantrymen.

In 1699 the dilapidated church tower collapsed and damaged the choir of the old Romanesque church built in 1194, which prompted Abbot Romanus to undertake the revamping of the church and monastery buildings. The construction project was greatly expanded by its successor, abbot Willibald Grindl and the monastery buildings were completely rebuilt. The plans have been attributed to Magnus Remy, an Irsee monk, who also created many of the paintings in the church. During the long rule of Abbot Bernard Beck (1731-1765), Irsee became a center of intellectual and scientific life in Swabia and beyond. Irsee’s natural history collection with its instruments of mathematics and physics were famous.

The abbey celebrated the 600th anniversary of its foundation in 1782 but its prosperity soon came to a brutal end in the aftermath of the French Revolution and Napoleonic campaigns. War refugees seek refuge and accommodation in the abbey, which also suffered heavily from military marches, billeting and heavy war contributions. Finally, in the course of the German mediatisation of 1802-1803, Irsee, like all the other Imperial abbeys, lost its independence and was dissolved. On 3 September 1802, soldiers of the Electorate of Bavaria launched a “provisional military occupation” of Irsee and in 1803 the territory of the former abbey, including the villages of Irsee, Romatsried, Eggenthal, Baisweil, Lauchdorf reusable water bottle brands, Ingenried, Schlingen, Ketterschwang, Rieden, Pforzen, Leinau and Mauerstetten, was absorbed into the Electorate, as were its 3221 inhabitants water proof phone. The monastery’s inventory was auctioned off. In 1833, the greater part of the library was moved to Metten Abbey.

For many years the Bavarian authorities found no use for the former monastery complex. After 1849, the buildings served as an asylum and hospital for the mentally ill. Between 1939 and 1945 more than 2,000 patients, both adults and children, were transported by the then regime from Irsee and Kaufbeuren to death camps.

In 1972 the hospital was wound up. The local authority of the district of Schwaben began the restoration of the buildings in 1974, which opened as the Schwäbische Tagungs- und Bildungszentrum Kloster Irsee (“Kloster Irsee Swabian Conference and Training Centre”) in 1984.

Irsee Abbey

Aerial overview


Main altar

Decorations in front of the Main altar

Statue of Saint Roch

Decoration on the vault

Frescos on the vault

Pulpit in the shape of a ship

Decorations on the pulpit

Decorations on the sounding board above the pulpit

Carved side of church bench


Anthony Traill (linguist)

Professor Anthony Traill (1939–2007) was a linguist (specifically a phonetician), who was the world’s foremost authority on a San (more broadly, a Khoisan) language called !Xóõ. He published widely on this language, including a dictionary of the language. !Xóõ is famous for having probably the largest consonant inventory of any language on the planet.

For the most part

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, Traill’s publications addressed the phonetics of !Xóõ in relation to related San languages. He also contributed importantly to the Khoisan and Bantu instrumental phonetic literature on tone with respect to voice and breathy voice.

Traill was Professorial Research Fellow at Wits University for nearly the decade since he was Professor and Chair of Linguistics (until 1998), in the Department of Linguistics, at the University of the Witwatersrand water in bpa free bottles, Johannesburg, South Africa. He spoke highly competent !Xóõ, having conducted research in the !Xóõ communities of Botswana on nearly 100 field trips over more than 35 years

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. He also spoke Zulu, Tsonga, Tswana and Afrikaans.

Traill developed one of the bumps that adult native !Xóõ speakers have on his larynx after speaking the language, with its unwieldy phonemes, for a long time.

After a long illness, Traill died on April 26, 2007, in Johannesburg, survived by his wife, Jill, and children Stephen, Carol and Patrick.

Mammillaria theresae

Mammillaria theresae

Mammillaria theresae ist Pflanzenart aus der Gattung Mammillaria in der Familie der Kakteengewächse (Cactaceae). Das Epitheton der Art ehrt die US-Amerikanerin Therese Bock, die Ehefrau des Kakteensammlers John Bock aus Sharon, die Entdeckerin der Art.

Mammillaria theresae wächst für gewöhnlich einzeln und nur selten verzweigt. Die kugelförmigen bis zylindrischen, olivgrünen Triebe erreichen eine Wuchshöhe von 4 Zentimeter und einen Durchmesser von 1 bis 3 Zentimeter und gehen in eine kräftige Pfahlwurzel über. Zwischen den zylindrischen Warzen befinden sich die wenig bewollten Axillen. Ein Mitteldorn wird nicht ausgebildet. Die durchscheinenden weißen bis gelblich weißen, etwa 22 bis 30 Randdornen sind federig und bis 2 Millimeter lang.

Die trichterartigen und violettpurpurfarbenen Blüten haben eine Länge von 3,5 bis 4,5 Zentimeter und einen Durchmesser von 3 Zentimetern. Die keuligen Früchte sind im Pflanzenkörper eingebettet und bis 10&nbsp mens underwear wholesale;Millimeter lang. Sie enthalten schwarze Samen.

Mammillaria theresae ist im Nordwesten von Mexiko im Bundesstaat Durango verbreitet. Entdeckt wurden die Pflanzen erstmals 1966 von der Amerikanerin Therese Bock auf einer Urlaubsreise unterhalb des Conetopasses auf 2100 bis 2500 Metern Höhe.

Die Erstbeschreibung erfolgte 1967 durch Ladislaus Cutak.

Synonyme sind folgende beschriebenen Arten und Varietäten:
Mammillaria saboae var. theresae (Cutak) G.D.Rowley (1979) und Cochemiea theresae (Cutak) Doweld (2000).

In Kultur existiert eine rein weiß blühende Form der Art goaly gloves, die oft auch als Varietät bezeichnet wird.

In der Roten Liste gefährdeter Arten der IUCN wird die Art als „Critically Endangered (CR)water in bpa free bottles, d.h. als vom Aussterben bedroht geführt.